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Table 3 Risk factors related to the occupation of workers and farmers enrolled in the cross-sectional survey in the Than Tri district, Hanoi, between April and June 2014

From: Intestinal parasite infections and associated risk factors in communities exposed to wastewater in urban and peri-urban transition zones in Hanoi, Vietnam

Risk factors related to occupation/Exposure groupsa Farmer peri-urban Farmer urban Worker HSDC
N = 129 N = 153 N = 128
n % n % n %
Employed 13 10.1 13 8.5 128 100
Retired 11 8.5 16 10.5 0 0
Duration worked in the current job (mean ± SD) 30.3 ± 12.9 36.9 ± 13.5 15.3 ± 9.1
Days worked per week (mean ± SD) 6.5 ± 1.2 5.5 ± 2.1 6.2 ± 0.6
Hours worked per week (mean ± SD) 39.8 ± 17.3 35.9 ± 23.2 50.0 ± 4.0
Possession of personal protective equipment
 Gloves 106 82.2 113 73.9 117 91.4
 Boots 107 82.9 131 85.6 110 85.9
 Uniform/cotton overall 28 21.7 11 7.2 120 93.8
 Rain coat with boots 29 22.5 48 31.4 120 93.8
 Rain coat without boots 36 27.9 58 37.9 84 65.6
 Long sleeves 97 75.2 137 89.5 48 37.5
 Helmet 3 2.3 1 0.7 117 91.4
 Soft hat (baseball cap) 24 18.6 37 24.2 7 5.5
 Vietnamese hat 111 86.0 141 92.2 4 3.1
 Face mask 110 85.3 105 68.6 121 94.5
Application of...
 Pesticides 113 87.6 117 76.5 nab  
 Fertilizer 122 94.6 146 95.4 na  
  1. aExposure groups: Farmer peri-urban : peri-urban farmers living in Duyen Ha commune using the irrigation water from Red River, wells or local drains, which are not contaminated with the city’s wastewater; Farmer urban : urban farmers living in Bang B village or Tam Hiep commune reusing wastewater from To Lich River; and Worker HSDC : workers from Hanoi Sewerage and Drainage Company (HSDC) maintaining drainage channels and operating the Yen So treatment plants
  2. bna, not applicable for sanitation workers