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Table 5 Self-reported health outcomes experienced in the last two weeks before the interview among the participants enrolled in a cross-sectional survey stratified by five exposure groups in the Than Tri district, Hanoi, between April and June 2014

From: Intestinal parasite infections and associated risk factors in communities exposed to wastewater in urban and peri-urban transition zones in Hanoi, Vietnam

Self-reported health issues over the past 2 weeks/ Exposure groupa Com peri-urban Com urban Farmer peri-urban Farmer urban Worker HSDC Chi-square test
N = 101 N = 170 N = 129 N = 153 N = 128
n % n % n % n % n % P-value
Diarrhoea
 14-day prevalence 12 11.9 16 9.4 5 3.9 16 10.5 10 7.8 0.205
 7-day prevalence 10 9.9 11 6.5 4 3.1 12 7.8 7 5.5 0.279
Number of episodes (14 days)
 1 9 8.9 12 7.1 5 3.9 12 7.8 6 4.7 0.411
 2 0 0.0 3 1.8 0 0.0 1 0.7 3 2.3  
 3 2 2.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 2 1.3 1 0.8  
 4 1 1.0 1 0.6 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0  
Eye problems (one or more symptoms) 21 20.8 50 29.4 28 21.7 58 37.9 43 33.6 0.008
 Eye irritation 8 7.9 6 3.5 10 7.7 23 15.0 32 25.0 < 0.001
 Sensitivity to light 2 2.0 1 0.6 0 0.0 5 3.3 3 2.3 0.172
 Other eye problems 11 10.9 45 26.4 18 14.0 41 26.8 13 10.2 0.352
Skin problems (one or more symptoms) 23 22.8 32 18.8 35 27.1 18 11.8 29 22.7 0.024
 Skin irritation 3 3.0 5 2.9 6 4.7 2 1.3 13 10.2 0.004
 Itching 21 20.8 22 12.9 29 22.5 10 6.5 18 14.1 0.001
 Other skin problems 0 0.0 10 5.9 3 2.3 10 6.5 5 4.7 0.402
Other self-reported signs and symptoms
 Headache 38 37.6 69 40.6 68 52.7 84 54.9 50 39.1 0.006
 Fever 7 6.9 8 4.7 9 7.0 10 6.5 4 3.1 0.591
 Abdominal pain 27 26.7 40 23.5 39 30.2 42 27.5 26 20.3 0.398
 Acute coughing 25 24.8 46 27.1 39 30.2 44 28.8 40 31.3 0.822
 Chronic coughing 5 5.0 15 8.8 1 0.8 14 9.2 2 1.6 0.002
 Chest pain 13 12.9 30 17.6 23 17.8 30 19.6 18 14.1 0.582
 Loss of weight 14 13.9 16 9.4 14 10.9 17 11.1 5 3.9 0.113
 Nausea 12 11.9 16 9.4 7 5.4 15 9.8 5 3.9 0.125
 Vomiting 2 2.0 3 1.8 2 1.6 3 2.0 1 0.8 0.941
 Vomiting of blood 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 0.7 0 0.0 0.485
 Muscle pain 19 18.8 43 25.3 32 24.8 52 34.0 33 25.8 0.097
 Back pain 48 47.5 80 47.1 77 59.7 102 66.7 45 35.2 < 0.001
 Joint pain 30 29.7 74 43.5 68 52.7 91 59.5 29 22.7 < 0.001
 Injuries 3 3.0 8 4.7 5 3.9 8 5.2 5 3.9 0.922
  1. aExposure groups: Com peri-urban : people living in the peri-urban commune Duyen Ha, 5 km away from the city along the Red River; Com urban : people living in the urban area of Hanoi, in Bang B village or Tam Hiep commune along the To Lich River and potential exposed to wastewater; Farmer peri-urban : peri-urban farmers living in Duyen Ha commune using the irrigation water from Red River, wells or local drains, which are not contaminated with the city’s wastewater; Farmer urban : urban farmers living in Bang B village or Tam Hiep commune reusing wastewater from To Lich River; and Worker HSDC : workers from Hanoi Sewerage and Drainage Company (HSDC) maintaining drainage channels and operating the Yen So treatment plants