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Table 2 Parameter estimates for the landscape model that also includes kernel estimates from red deer home ranges. The model predicts the numbers of ticks caught in May, representing winter and resident home ranges, with the flagging method between the years 2009 and 2013. Baseline is the study area in Sogn & Fjordane County (intercept) and the land resource category “agricultural pastures”. Møre & Romsdal County is reported as the deviation from the baseline (Sogn & Fjordane). Estimates are averaged over all 400 estimates from the bootstrap analysis

From: The influence of red deer space use on the distribution of Ixodes ricinus ticks in the landscape

Parameter Estimate Standard error Z P
Intercept 2.2 0.51 4.3 < 0.001
Northness -0.21 0.050 -4.3 < 0.001
Slope 0.36 0.046 7.8 < 0.001
Elevation 0.015 0.076 0.20 0.73
Elevation2 -0.079 0.051 -1.6 0.14
Distance to fjord -1.1 0.17 -6.6 < 0.001
Coniferous forest 0.067 0.17 0.40 0.63
Deciduous forest 0.49 0.16 3.0 0.020
Mixed forest 0.53 0.35 1.5 0.15
Unclassified forest 1.1 0.27 3.9 < 0.001
Marshes -1.3 0.49 -2.6 0.016
Without forest -0.043 0.26 -0.17 0.66
Kernel -0.21 0.066 -3.2 0.012
Years between -0.30 0.074 -4.1 < 0.001
Home range size -0.15 0.072 -2.1 0.062
Study area (MR vs SF) -0.50 0.45 -1.1 0.27
  1. Land resource categories have the following factor levels in addition to the intercept: coniferous forest, deciduous forest, mixed forest, unclassified forest, marshes and natural vegetation without forests (without forest). Estimates are derived from standardised covariates. Note that this is a subset of data used in Table 1. Note also that high kernel values indicate that an area is used less frequently by red deer