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Table 1 Individual, household, and community characteristics of 11,009 children aged 6 to 15 years by community proportion of households with latrines in use in Amhara Region, Ethiopia, 2011–2014

From: Association of community sanitation usage with soil-transmitted helminth infections among school-aged children in Amhara Region, Ethiopia

% Households with latrines in use   0– < 20% 20– < 40% 40– < 60% 60– < 80% 80–100% Total  
  n Mean (%) 95% CI Mean (%) 95% CI Mean (%) 95% CI Mean (%) 95% CI Mean (%) 95% CI Mean (%) 95% CI P a
Children, aged 6–15 years (n)   2472 1837 2202 2467 2031 11,009  
Communities (n)   137 97 109 125 108 576  
Hookworm 11,009 0.24 0.20–0.29 0.18 0.13–0.24 0.20 0.16–0.26 0.23 0.18–0.28 0.24 0.19–0.30 0.22 0.20–0.24 0.47
T. trichiura 11,009 0.03 0.02–0.04 0.03 0.01–0.06 0.04 0.03–0.06 0.06 0.04–0.09 0.07 0.05–0.10 0.04 0.04–0.05 0.01
A. lumbricoides 11,009 0.10 0.07–0.13 0.16 0.12–0.21 0.14 0.11–0.18 0.16 0.12–0.20 0.17 0.13–0.20 0.14 0.13–0.16 0.04
Age, years 10,961 9.68 9.53–9.82 10.02 9.86–10.17 10.08 9.93–10.23 10.12 9.98–10.26 10.28 10.10–10.46 10.02 9.96–10.09 <0.01
Male sex 11,000 0.48 0.46–0.51 0.49 0.46–0.52 0.50 0.47–0.52 0.48 0.46–0.51 0.45 0.42–0.47 0.48 0.47–0.49 0.09
Reported usually attending school 10,833 0.65 0.61–0.69 0.72 0.66–0.76 0.80 0.76–0.83 0.79 0.76–0.82 0.85 0.82–0.87 0.76 0.74–0.78 <0.01
Reported always wearing shoes (2011) 1029 0.06 0.01–0.19 0.02 0.00–0.08 0.10 0.02–0.39 0.04 0.01–0.14 0.30 0.14–0.53 0.09 0.05–0.17 <0.01
Any observed shoes (No 2011) 9795 0.46 0.40–0.52 0.57 0.49–0.66 0.51 0.43–0.59 0.43 0.36–0.50 0.48 0.40–0.55 0.48 0.46–0.51 0.13
Any reported or observed shoes (All) 10,824 0.42 0.37–0.47 0.52 0.44–0.60 0.49 0.42–0.57 0.41 0.35–0.48 0.47 0.40–0.54 0.46 0.44–0.48 0.18
Anthelmintics in past year (2011) 1016 0.09 0.05–0.18 0.06 0.02–0.15 0.16 0.05–0.43 0.12 0.06–0.23 0.27 0.14–0.44 0.13 0.09–0.18 0.06
Anthelmintics in past year (No 2011) 9224 0.17 0.12–0.22 0.17 0.12–0.23 0.14 0.11–0.18 0.21 0.16–0.26 0.20 0.15–0.26 0.18 0.16–0.20 0.28
Anthelmintics in past year (All) 10,240 0.16 0.12–0.21 0.16 0.11–0.21 0.14 0.11–0.18 0.20 0.16–0.26 0.21 0.16–0.27 0.17 0.15–0.20 0.19
Reported always use latrine (2011) 1026 0.05 0.02–0.12 0.18 0.11–0.28 0.41 0.23–0.61 0.58 0.42–0.73 0.92 0.81–0.97 0.36 0.27–0.46 <0.01
Reported last use of latrine (No 2011) 9643 0.10 0.08–0.13 0.37 0.32–0.42 0.56 0.52–0.60 0.77 0.73–0.80 0.88 0.84–0.91 0.54 0.51–0.57 <0.01
Reported use of latrine (All) 10,669 0.10 0.08–0.12 0.35 0.30–0.40 0.55 0.51–0.59 0.76 0.72–0.79 0.88 0.85–0.91 0.53 0.50–0.55 <0.01
Worms in past year 10,251 0.34 0.29–0.39 0.35 0.29–0.42 0.33 0.27–0.39 0.36 0.32–0.41 0.37 0.31–0.43 0.35 0.32–0.37 0.85
Household owns latrine 10,986 0.13 0.11–0.16 0.43 0.39–0.46 0.63 0.60–0.65 0.81 0.79–0.82 0.95 0.94–0.96 0.59 0.56–0.61 <0.01
Household owns latrine in use 10,963 0.09 0.07–0.11 0.37 0.35–0.39 0.57 0.55–0.59 0.77 0.75–0.78 0.93 0.92–0.95 0.54 0.52–0.57 <0.01
Bathing water access < 30 min 10,769 0.49 0.41–0.56 0.57 0.48–0.65 0.62 0.53–0.70 0.71 0.64–0.78 0.68 0.59–0.75 0.61 0.58–0.65 <0.01
Improved drinking water source 10,792 0.38 0.30–0.46 0.53 0.42–0.63 0.56 0.46–0.64 0.55 0.46–0.63 0.63 0.54–0.72 0.52 0.48–0.56 <0.01
Household has
 Radio 10,770 0.12 0.09–0.14 0.14 0.10–0.20 0.21 0.17–0.25 0.23 0.19–0.26 0.25 0.21–0.31 0.19 0.17–0.21 <0.01
 TV 10,772 0.00 0.00–0.02 0.02 0.01–0.04 0.02 0.01–0.04 0.05 0.03–0.08 0.09 0.06–0.14 0.04 0.03–0.05 <0.01
 Electricity 10,766 0.01 0.00–0.03 0.07 0.03–0.15 0.08 0.04–0.14 0.19 0.13–0.27 0.22 0.15–0.30 0.11 0.09–0.14 <0.01
 Mobile phone 10,766 0.16 0.13–0.21 0.24 0.19–0.30 0.30 0.26–0.35 0.28 0.23–0.34 0.32 0.27–0.38 0.26 0.24–0.28 <0.01
 Iron roof 10,783 0.45 0.40–0.51 0.57 0.49–0.65 0.68 0.62–0.74 0.76 0.70–0.80 0.75 0.69–0.81 0.64 0.62–0.67 <0.01
Highest education of an adult 10,774              <0.01
None   0.53 0.47–0.58 0.49 0.42–0.56 0.42 0.37–0.49 0.39 0.34–0.43 0.36 0.30–0.43 0.44 0.41–0.46  
Religious   0.03 0.02–0.05 0.02 0.01–0.03 0.03 0.02–0.05 0.05 0.03–0.07 0.03 0.02–0.05 0.03 0.03–0.04  
Primary school   0.20 0.17–0.25 0.14 0.11–0.18 0.19 0.15–0.23 0.19 0.15–0.23 0.22 0.17–0.27 0.19 0.17–0.21  
Junior secondary   0.15 0.12–0.17 0.21 0.17–0.25 0.21 0.18–0.24 0.19 0.17–0.22 0.21 0.18–0.26 0.19 0.18–0.20  
Senior secondary   0.03 0.02–0.04 0.07 0.05–0.09 0.10 0.08–0.12 0.12 0.10–0.14 0.12 0.09–0.15 0.09 0.08–0.10  
College/University   0.00 0.00–0.01 0.01 0.01–0.03 0.01 0.01–0.02 0.02 0.02–0.04 0.03 0.02–0.04 0.02 0.01–0.02  
Non-formal education   0.05 0.04–0.08 0.06 0.04–0.09 0.04 0.03–0.05 0.05 0.03–0.07 0.03 0.02–0.05 0.05 0.04–0.05  
Mean total of wealth indicators per household 576 0.68 0.59–0.76 0.92 0.78–1.07 1.23 1.08–1.37 1.45 1.28–1.61 1.67 1.47–1.87 1.19 1.12–1.26 <0.01
Population density (km−2) 574 451 206–695 414 198–629 405 237–573 1013 544–1481 1459 896–2023 764 596–933 <0.01
Has a health facility 553 0.08 0.04–0.14 0.19 0.12–0.29 0.23 0.16–0.33 0.18 0.12–0.26 0.30 0.21–0.40 0.19 0.16–0.23 <0.01
Elevation (m) 575 2043 1962–2124 2259 2140–2379 2263 2178–2348 2359 2250–2468 2317 2220–2415 2244 2215–2273 <0.01
Soil moisture (m3/m3) 575 0.25 0.24–0.26 0.26 0.25–0.27 0.26 0.25–0.28 0.29 0.28–0.29 0.29 0.28–0.30 0.27 0.27–0.27 <0.01
  1. Abbreviation: CI confidence interval
  2. a P-values from Wald adjusted F-test for categorical variables or ANOVA F-test for difference in continuous means