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Table 2 Association of infection with hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides with community proportion of households with latrines in use and household ownership of latrine in use among children aged 6 to 15 years in Amhara Region, Ethiopia, 2011–2014

From: Association of community sanitation usage with soil-transmitted helminth infections among school-aged children in Amhara Region, Ethiopia

Infection Sanitation measure   Crudea DAG-basedb Fullc
aPR 95% CI aPR 95% CI aPR 95% CI
Hookworm Community ≥ 80% 0.80 0.54–1.18 1.21 0.82–1.80 1.19 0.81–1.77
% Households with latrines in use per cluster 60– < 80% 0.67 0.46–0.98 1.05 0.70–1.56 1.03 0.70–1.52
40– < 60% 0.77 0.51–1.16 1.01 0.69–1.50 0.99 0.68–1.44
20– < 40% 0.69 0.46–1.03 0.88 0.59–1.32 0.87 0.59–1.29
< 20% Ref   Ref   Ref  
Household        
Latrine in use   1.00 0.91–1.08
No latrine in use   Ref  
T. trichiura Community ≥ 80% 4.12 1.80–9.42 3.56 1.39–9.14 3.70 1.40–9.76
% Households with latrines in use per cluster 60– < 80% 2.82 1.23–6.48 2.50 1.01–6.21 2.50 1.02–6.14
40– < 60% 2.08 0.96–4.53 2.01 0.90–4.49 2.10 0.95–4.63
20– < 40% 0.91 0.39–2.12 0.89 0.38–2.08 0.89 0.39–2.05
< 20% Ref   Ref   Ref  
Household        
Latrine in use   0.93 0.78–1.11
No latrine in use   Ref  
A. lumbricoides Community ≥ 80% 2.48 1.58–3.90 2.33 1.42–3.84 2.35 1.37–4.01
% Households with latrines in use per cluster 60– < 80% 2.02 1.28–3.19 1.81 1.12–2.92 1.80 1.09–2.98
40– < 60% 1.47 0.98–2.21 1.45 0.98–2.16 1.44 0.95–2.16
20– < 40% 1.62 1.02–2.58 1.49 1.01–2.20 1.47 0.99–2.18
< 20% Ref   Ref   Ref  
Household        
Latrine in use   1.01 0.89–1.14
No latrine in use   Ref  
  1. Models for A. lumbricoides and T. trichuris included data on 9818 children in 574 communities. Models for hookworm included data on 9812 children in 574 communities
  2. Abbreviations: aPR adjusted prevalence ratio, CI confidence interval. Results weighted to account for unequal probabilities of selection
  3. aCrude model only controlled for survey round
  4. bDAG-based model was adjusted for elevation; population density; community mean total of wealth indicators per household; soil moisture; and survey round
  5. cFull model for A. lumbricoides and T. trichuris adjusted for age; sex; anthelmintic treatment; bathing water source < 30 min; improved drinking water source; household owns: radio, television, mobile phone, iron roof, and has access to electricity; household education; elevation; soil moisture; community mean total of wealth indicators per household; population density; and survey round. Full model for hookworm adjusted for the same covariates in addition to shoe wearing.