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Table 1 Species of Leishmania causing leishmaniasis in humans (adopted and modified according to references [46])

From: The history of leishmaniasis

Subgenus Species Old/New World Clinical disease Distribution
Leishmania L. aethiopica OW LCL, DCL East Africa (Ethiopia, Kenya)
L. amazonensis NW LCL, DCL, MCL South America (Brazil, Venezuela, Bolivia)
L. donovani OW VL, PKDL Central Africa, South Asia, Middle East, India, China
L. infantum (syn. L. chagasi) OW, NW VL, CL Mediterranean countries (North Africa and Europe), Southeast Europe, Middle East, Central Asia, North, Central and South America (Mexico, Venezuela, Brazil, Bolivia)
L. major OW CL North and Central Africa, Middle East, Central Asia
L. mexicana (syn. L. pifanoi) NW LCL, DCL USA, Ecuador, Venezuela, Peru
L. tropica OW LCL, VL North and Central Africa, Middle East, Central Asia, India
L. venezuelensis NW LCL Northern South America, Venezuela
L. waltoni NW DCL Dominican Republic
Viannia L. braziliensis NW LCL, MCL Western Amazon Basin, South America (Guatemala, Venezuela, Brazil, Bolivia, Peru)
L. guyanensis NW LCL, MCL Northern South America (French Guinea, Suriname, Brazil, Bolivia)
L. lainsoni NW LCL Brazil, Bolivia, Peru
L. lindenbergi NW LCL Brazil
L. naiffi NW LCL Brazil, French Guinea
L. panamensis NW LCL, MCL Central and South America (Panama, Columbia, Venezuela, Brazil)
L. peruviana NW LCL, MCL Peru, Bolivia
L. shawi NW LCL Brazil
Mundinia L. martiniquensis NW, OW LCL, VL Martinique, Thailand
  1. Abbreviations: DCL diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, LCL localised cutaneous leishmaniasis, MCL mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, NW New World, OW Old World, PKDL post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis, VL visceral leishmaniasis