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Table 9 Relative risk ratios for being underweight, Manufahi District, Timor-Leste

From: Investigations into the association between soil-transmitted helminth infections, haemoglobin and child development indices in Manufahi District, Timor-Leste

  Moderate underweight (n = 253) Severe underweight (n = 129)
Parameter RR 95% CI ARR 95% CI P RR 95% CI ARR 95% CI P
Ascaris heavy-intensity 1.0 0.53–2.1 0.85 0.41–1.7 0.8925 1.6 0.72–3.5 1.2 0.49–2.8 0.9379
Ascaris moderate-intensity 1.1 0.60–2.1 1.0 0.52–1.9   1.5 0.73–3.3 1.0 0.46–2.3  
N. americanus heavy-intensitya 1.0 0.64–1.7 0.59 0.28–1.2 0.3584 0.85 0.47–1.5 0.66 0.25–1.8 0.1519
N. americanus moderate-intensitya 0.94 0.41–2.2 0.76 0.26–2.2   0.87d 0.31–2.5 0.12d 0.01–1.2  
Age group 6 to 10 yearsb 1.4 0.91–2.2 1.2 0.63–2.2 0.5930 2.8*** 1.6–4.8 3.3 1.5–7.0 0.0030
Age group 6 to 10 years and N. americanus heavy-intensity infectionc 1.4 0.80–2.5 1.8 0.67–4.8 0.2510 1.7 0.81–3.6 0.70 0.20–2.4 0.5740
Age group 6 to 10 years and N. americanus moderate-intensity infectionc 1.8 0.39–8.2 2.1 0.30–13.9 0.4630 7.0 1.36–35.8 15.6 0.91–266.4 0.0580
Ancylostoma infection 2.5 0.88–6.8 2.8 0.94–8.1 0.0640 0.69d 0.15–3.2 0.86d 0.18–4.2 0.8480
Giardia infection 0.97 0.58–1.6     1.1 0.58–2.1    
Anaemia prevalence 0.99 0.56–1.8 0.98 0.54–1.8 0.9430 0.70 0.34–1.5 0.85 0.39–1.9 0.6820
Male sex 1.3 0.85–2.0 1.3 0.81–2.0 0.3040 2.4*** 1.4–4.2 3.1 1.7–5.6 < 0.0001
Socioeconomic quintile 4 1.4 0.66–3.1 1.5 0.66–3.3 0.2606 0.57 0.20–1.6 0.66 0.23–1.9 0.3095
Socioeconomic quintile 3 1.1 0.46–2.4 1.1 0.48–2.6   1.0 0.36–2.8 1.1 0.37–3.0  
Socioeconomic quintile 2 1.1 0.53–2.5 1.2 0.54–2.7   0.87 0.33–2.3 0.96 0.36–2.6  
Socioeconomic quintile 1 (poorest) 2.4 1.0–5.6 2.5 1.0–6.1   2.0 0.72–5.8 2.2 0.76–6.6  
  1. Notes: Ascaris (categorical infection intensity), N. americanus (categorical infection intensity), Ancylostoma infection prevalence (binary), anaemia prevalence (binary), age group, sex and socioeconomic quintile were included in all multivariable regression models as exposure outcomes and covariates. Being underweight not measured in children aged 11 to 17 years. An age group*N. americanus interaction is included in the model. Reference categories: No Ascaris infection, no N. americanus infection, age group 1–5 years, no N. americanus infection in age group 6 to 10 years (multivariable only), no Ancylostoma infection, no Giardia infection, no anaemia, female sex, socioeconomic quintile 5 (wealthiest)
  2. Abbreviations: RR relative risk, ARR adjusted relative risk, CI confidence interval, P, Wald test P-value
  3. **P < 0.05, ***P < 0.01 in univariable analysis
  4. aThe N. americanus main effect, being N. americanus infection intensity relative to no N. americanus infection in age group 1 to 5 years (reference age group)
  5. bThe age group 6 to 10 years main effect, being the relative risk of being aged 6 to 10 relative to being aged 1 to 5 when there is no N. americanus infection (reference group)
  6. c N. americanus infection intensity in age group 6 to 10 years is relative to no N. americanus infection in age group 6 to 10 years (because age group 6 to 10 years and moderate- or heavy-intensity N. americanus infection are not the reference groups)
  7. d10 observations or less in subgroup; result should be interpreted cautiously
  8. Normal weight is reference category, i.e. moderate and severe underweight need to be interpreted relative to this reference. Ascaris and N. americanus intensity infections defined according to following cut-points: Ascaris: heavy-intensity Cq ≤ 15.4, moderate-intensity Cq > 15.4 < 31, no infection Cq ≥ 31; N. americanus: heavy-intensity Cq ≤ 24.6, moderate-intensity Cq > 24.6 < 35, no infection Cq ≥ 35