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Table 2 A summary of some larvicidal compounds derived from plants

From: Prospects for malaria control through manipulation of mosquito larval habitats and olfactory-mediated behavioural responses using plant-derived compounds

Plant Active compound Dosage at LC50 Mosquito species Published source Mode of action
Non volatiles
Ricinus communis Pyridone alkaloids 0.18 mg/ml An. gambiae (s.s.) [179] Toxicity
Tithonia diversifolia Sesquisterpene lactones 0.33 mg/ml An. gambiae (s.s.) [179] Toxicity
Plumbago dawei Plumbagin, β-sitosterol 4.1 μg/ml An. gambiae (s.s.) [180] Toxicity
Azadirachtica indica Azadirachtin, salanin, deacetylgedunin 0.014–0.078 ppm An. stephensi [183] Toxicity and growth disruption
Turraea abyssinica Mzikonone, 1α-12α- diacetoxy-1,2-dihydro-7-deacetyl-3β-7α-dihydroxyazadiron, 12-α-acetoxy-7-deacetylazadiron 265 ppm An. gambiae (s.s.) [185] Toxicity
Turraea cornucopia Mzikonone, 1α-12α- diacetoxy-1,2-dihydro-7-deacetyl-3β-7α-dihydroxyazadiron, 12-α-acetoxy-7-deacetylazadiron 202 ppm An. gambiae (s.s.) [185] Toxicity
Melia volkensii Salannin, volkensin 5.4 mg/l An. arabiensis [186] Toxicity
Dysoxylum malaricum 3β,24,25-trihydroxycycloartane 2.5–6.5 ppm An. stephensi [187] Toxicity and growth disruption
Dysoxylum beddomei Beddomeilactone 2.5–6.5 ppm An. stephensi [187] Toxicity and growth disruption
Vitex payos Stigmasterol, 20-hydroxyecdysone, γ-sitosterol 0.25–10 ppm An. gambiae (s.s) [188] Toxicity and growth disruption
Vitex schiliebenii Stigmasterol, 20-hydroxyecdysone, γ-sitosterol 0.25–10 ppm An. gambiae (s.s.) [188] Toxicity and growth disruption
Camellia sinensis (tea) Proanthocyanidins 5.52 ppm An. gambiae (s.s.), An. arabiensis [189] Toxicity and growth disruption
Essential oils
Neem oil Azadirachtin 11 ppm An. gambiae (s.s.) [198] Toxicity
Cryptomeria japonica Kau-16-rene, β-elemol 5.55–134.84 μg/ml An. gambiae (s.s.) [199] Toxicity
Schinus terebinthifolia δ-3-carene 202.15–2,625.20 ppm An. gambiae (s.s.), An. arabiensis [200] Toxicity
Plectranthus amboinicus Thymol, carvacrol 55.20 ppm An. gambiae (s.s.) [201] Toxicity
Ocimum canum Tannins, phenol, saponin, alkaloid, steroid, flavonoids, triterpenoid 49.51 × 10−3 mg/ml An. gambiae (s.s.) [202] Toxicity
Cinnamomum osmophloeum Trans-cinnamaldehyde 11.91–63.63 μg/ml An. gambiae (s.s.) [204] Toxicity
Zanthoxylum armatum Monoterpenes 58 ppm An. stephensi [205] Toxicity
Trychyspermum ammi Thymol 80 mg/ml An. stephensi [206] Toxicity