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Table 6 Univariable meta-regression model for the proportion of JEV infection in vectors. Coefficients, P-values, and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the association between predictors of interest with the proportion of JEV infection in vectors (n = 18 studies). Random effects meta-regression models use the restricted maximum likelihood method (REML)

From: Meta-analyses of the proportion of Japanese encephalitis virus infection in vectors and vertebrate hosts

Predictor n Coefficient (logit) SE (logit) 95% CI (logit) P-value Overall P-value
Mosquito species       0.08
Culex tritaeniorhynchus 10 Reference     
Aedes albopictus 1 1.27 1.25 -1.27–3.81 0.32  
Aedes butleri 1 -1.07 1.32 -3.75–1.61 0.42  
Aedes vexans 1 -0.69 1.62 -4.00–2.61 0.67  
Anopheles minimus 1 -0.69 1.62 -4.00–2.61 0.67  
Anopheles subpictus 1 -0.25 0.48 -1.23–0.74 0.61  
Anopheles tessellatus 1 -0.69 1.62 -4.00–2.61 0.67  
Armigeres subalbatus 1 -0.75 1.36 -3.51–2.01 0.58  
Coquillettidia crassipes 1 1.79 1.72 -1.72–5.29 0.31  
Culex annulirostris 1 2.15 1.20 -0.30–4.59 0.08  
Culex annulus 2 2.29 0.95 0.37–4.22 0.02  
Culex bitaeniorhynchus 1 1.95 1.39 -0.88–4.78 0.17  
Culex fuscocephala 2 2.51 0.96 0.56–4.45 0.01  
Culex gelidus 2 1.11 1.01 -0.96–3.17 0.28  
Culex palpalis 1 2.09 0.97 0.11–4.06 0.04  
Culex pipiens 1 -0.29 1.65 -3.65–3.07 0.86  
Culex pipiens fatigans 1 5.27 1.58 2.06–8.48 < 0.001  
Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus 1 -0.94 1.35 -3.69–1.81 0.49  
Culex quinquefasciatus 2 0.96 1.16 -1.41–3.32 0.42  
Culex sitiens 1 0.59 1.41 -2.28–3.46 0.68  
Culex whitmorei 3 -0.51 1.18 -2.92–1.90 0.67  
Mansonia septempunctata 1 0.18 1.34 -2.55–2.91 0.90  
Ochleratus normanensis 1 0.16 0.90 -1.68–2.00 0.86  
Verralina funerea 1 1.10 1.57 -2.10–4.30 0.49  
Intercept   -1.10 0.32 -1.76– -0.44 < 0.001  
Diagnostic method       0.01
 Virus isolation 9 Reference     
 Not reported 2 0.41 0.50 -0.60–1.43 0.42  
 PCR 4 -1.24 0.55 -2.34– -0.15 0.03  
 Antigen-capture enzyme assays 3 -0.98 0.48 -1.95– -0.01 0.05  
Intercept   -0.31 0.32 -0.96–0.33 0.34  
Country       0.01
 Australasia 3 Reference     
 China and Taiwan 3 0.07 0.55 -1.03–1.16 0.90  
 India 5 -1.34 0.50 -2.35– -0.33 0.01  
 Japan and South Korea 5 -1.20 0.53 -2.27– -0.13 0.03  
 Thailand 2 -2.20 1.09 -4.40– -0.01 0.05  
Intercept   0.02 0.37 -0.73–0.77 0.96  
Capture method       < 0.01
 Mechanical visual and olfactory 4 Reference     
 Not reported 2 -0.81 0.99 -2.80–1.18 0.42  
 Manual active 1 4.46 0.60 3.25–5.67 < 0.001  
 Manual and mechanical 3 -0.76 0.32 -1.41– -0.11 0.02  
 Manual passive 4 -1.12 0.33 -1.79– -0.46 < 0.001  
 Mechanical olfactory 3 -1.01 0.54 -2.10–0.08 0.07  
 Mechanical visual 1 -1.32 1.08 -3.50–0.86 0.23  
Intercept   -0.29 0.23 -0.76–0.18 0.22  
  1. Abbreviation: SE standard error