45 ticks (n = 9) significantly differed for B. burgdorferi (s.l.), Rickettsia spp., and "Ca. N. mikurensis", but were not related to the habitat type. Three hundred fifty eight out of 1078 I. ricinus ticks (33.2%) tested positive for at least one pathogen. Thereof, about 20% (71/358) were carrying two or three different potentially disease-causing agents. Using next generation sequencing, we could detect true pathogens, tick symbionts and organisms of environmental or human origin in ten selected samples. Conclusions Our data document the presence of pathogens in the (sub-) urban I. ricinus tick population in Switzerland, with carrier rates as high as those in rural regions. Carriage of multiple pathogens was repeatedly observed, demonstrating the risk of acquiring multiple infections as a consequence of a tick bite."/>
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Table 5 Pathogen screening results of I. ricinus ticks from 18 urban collection sites

From: Prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in urban and suburban areas of Switzerland

Collection sites Number of I. ricinus ticks positive for:
City Name Description n TBEV B.a. B.b.(s.s.) B.g. B.va. B.b.(s.l.) B.m. R.h. R.m. A.p. B.ve. N.m.
Basel Friedhof Hörnli Cemetery 246 0 15 3 5 1 1 8 37 0 3 5 24
Basel Margrethenpark Urban park 83 0 4 2 0 0 0 1 20 0 0 1 0
Bern Allmend Urban park 123 0 27 0 7 3 7 2 13 0 4 0 12
Geneva Bois des frères Suburban forest 135 0 5 2 10 2 6 4 7 1 3 0 4
Geneva Parc des Croppettes Urban park 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
Lausanne Parc de l’Hermitage Urban park 103 0 4 1 2 2 1 2 6 2 1 0 4
Lugano Parco San Michele Urban park 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Luzern Allmend Urban park 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Neuchâtel Jardin du Prince Urban forest 49 0 2 0 1 1 1 4 2 0 0 0 5
Neuchâtel Les Cadolles Suburban forest 115 0 8 0 2 0 6 4 3 0 1 0 4
Sion Vissigen River side 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
St. Gallen Bildweiher Urban park 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Winterthur Heiligberg Urban park 3 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0
Zürich Friedhof Sihlfeld, sector E Cemetery 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
Zürich Staudenweg Suburban forest 5 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0
Zürich Waldrand Waid, Chäferberg Suburban forest 47 0 7 0 0 0 0 0 11 0 0 0 5
Zürich Waidberg Wald Suburban forest 143 0 7 3 0 0 1 1 35 0 1 0 5
Zürich Witikon Suburban forest 17 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 3 0 1 0 0
  1. Abbreviations: TBEV, Tick-borne encephalitis virus; B.a., Borrelia afzelii; B.b.(s.s.), Borrelia burgdorferi (s.s.); B.g., Borrelia garinii; B.va., Borrelia valaisiana; B.b.(s.l.), Borrelia burgdorferi (s.l.), multiple species; B.m., Borrelia miyamotoi; R.h., Rickettsia helvetica; A.p., Anaplasma phagocytophilum; B.ve., Babesia venatorum (EU1); N.m, "Candidatus N. mikurensis"