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Table 3 Prevalence of Trichinella spp. in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in European countries and comparison with the present study

From: Trichinella spp. biomass has increased in raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Estonia

Country Sampling period Samples (n) Prevalence of Trichinella spp. (95% CI) (%) Prevalence of Tn (total) (95% CI) (%) Prevalence of Tb (total) (95% CI) (%) Prevalence of Ts (total) (95% CI) (%) Prevalence of Tp (total) (95% CI) (%) Prevalence of mixed infections (95% CI) (%) Reference
Estonia 2011–2012 87 69.0 (58.7–78.0) 31.0 (22.0–41.3) 35.6 (26.1–46.1) 0.0 (0.0–3.4) 0.0 (0.0–3.4) 9.2 (4.4–16.7) Present study
Estonia 2000–2002 446 40.6*** (36.1–45.2) 16.6** (13.4–20.3) 13.5*** (10.5–16.7) 0.0 (0.0–0.7) 0.0 (0.0–0.7) 2.9*(1.6–4.8) [4]
Estonia 1992–2000 21 42.9* (23.3–64.3) 14.3 (3.8–34.1) 28.6 (12.5–50.2) 0.0 (0.0–13.3) 0.0 (0.0–13.3) 4.8 (0.2–21.3) [3, 14, 57]
Austria   1546 1.6*** (1.0–2.3) 0.0*** (0.0–0.2) 1.6*** (1.0–2.3) 0.0 (0.0–0.2) 0.0 (0.0–0.2) 0.0*** (0.0–0.2) [27]
Belgium 1996–2000 818 0.0*** (0.0–0.4) 0.0*** (0.0–0.4) 0.0*** (0.0–0.4) 0.0 (0.0–0.4) 0.0 (0.0–0.4) 0.0*** (0.0–0.4) [28]
Denmark 1995–1996 3133 0.1*** (0.0–0.3)       [29]
Denmark 1997–1998 3008 0.0*** (0.0–0.1) 0.0*** (0.0–0.1) 0.0*** (0.0–0.1) 0.0 (0.0–0.1) 0.0 (0.0–0.1) 0.0*** (0.0–0.1) [29]
Finland 1999–2005 1010 18.7*** (16.4–21.2)       [19]
Finland 1996–1998 158 36.7*** (29.5–44.4)       [8]
France 2006–2009 108 2.8*** (0.7–7.4) 0.0*** (0.0–2.7) 2.8*** (0.7–7.4) 0.0 (0.0–2.7) 0.0 (0.0–2.7) 0.0*** (0.0–2.7) [29]
France 2006–2008 74 0.0*** (0.0–4.0) 0.0*** (0.0–4.0) 0.0*** (0.0–4.0) 0.0 (0.0–4.0) 0.0 (0.0–4.0) 0.0*** (0.0–4.0) [31]
Germany 2011–2012 3154 0.3*** (0.2–0.6)       [25]
Germany 2006–2007 100 1.0*** (0.1–4.8) 0.0*** (0.0–3.0) 0.0*** (0.0–3.0) 0.0 (0.0–3.0) 0.0 (0.0–3.0) 0.0*** (0.0–3.0) [20]
Hungary 2008–2013 3304 2.1*** (1.6–2.6) 0.0*** (0.0–0.1) 1.8*** (1.4–2.3) 0.2 (0.1–0.5) 0.0 (0.0–0.1) 0.0*** (0.0–0.1) [32]
Hungary 2007–2008 2116 1.7*** (1.2–2.3) 0.0*** (0.0–0.1) 1.4*** (1.0–2.0) 0.2 (0.1–0.5) 0.0 (0.0–0.2) 0.0*** (0.0–0.1) [33]
Italy 2010–2014 153 8.5*** (4.8–13.8) 0.0*** (0.0–1.9) 8.5*** (4.8–13.8) 0.0 (0.0–1.9) 0.0 (0.0–1.9) 0.0*** (0.0–1.9) [34]
Italy 2004–2014 480 5.0*** (3.3–7.2)       [35]
Italy 2001–2004 229 3.1*** (1.3–6.0) 0.0*** (0.0–1.3) 3.1*** (1.3–6.0) 0.0 (0.0–1.3) 0.0 (0.0–1.3) 0.0*** (0.0–1.3) [36]
Italy 2001–2004 227 3.5*** (1.7–6.6) 0.0*** (0.0–1.3) 3.5*** (1.7–6.6) 0.0 (0.0–1.3) 0.0 (0.0–1.3) 0.0*** (0.0–1.3) [37]
Italy 1997–2003 172 1.2*** (0.2–3.8)       [38]
Ireland 2002 454 0.9*** (0.3–2.1) 0.0*** (0.0–0.7) 0.0*** (0.0–0.7) 0.9 (0.3–2.1) 0.0 (0.0–0.7) 0.0*** (0.0–0.7) [39]
Latvia 2010–2014 668 50.6** (46.8–54.4) 1.5*** (0.8–2.7) 40.9 (37.2–44.6) 0.0 (0.0–0.4) 0.0 (0.0–0.4) 1.0*** (0.5–2.1) [22]
Latvia 2000–2002 1112 28.9*** (26.3–31.6) 2.2*** (1.4–3.1) 10.3*** (8.6–12.1) 0.4 (0.2–1.0) 0.0 (0.0–0.3) 1.3*** (0.7–2.1) [4]
Lithuania 2001–2006 206 46.6*** (39.9–53.4)       [23]
Lithuania 2000–2002 567 40.0*** (36.1–44.1) 0.9*** (0.3–1.9) 23.3* (19.9–26.9) 4.8* (3.2–6.8) 0.2 (0.0–0.9) 3.2* (2.0–4.9) [4]
Netherlands 2010–2013 369 0.3*** (0.0–1.3)       [40]
Netherlands 1996–1997 276 4.0*** (2.1–6.8) 0.0*** (0.0–1.1) 4.0*** (2.1–6.8) 0.0 (0.0–1.1) 0.0 (0.0–1.1) 0.0*** (0.0–1.1) [41]
Norway 1994–1995, 2002–2005 393 4.8*** (3.0–7.3) 4.6*** (2.8–7.0) 0.3*** (0.0–1.2) 0.0 (0.0–0.8) 0.0 (0.0–0.8) 0.0*** (0.0–0.8) [42]
Poland 2010–2015 1447 10.0*** (8.6–11.7) 0.0*** (0.0–0.2) 7.2*** (5.9–8.6) 1.1 (0.7–1.8) 0.1 (0.0–0.3) 0.0*** (0.0–0.2) [26]
Poland 2011–2012 1634 2.7*** (2.0–3.6) 0.1*** (0.0–0.3) 2.0*** (1.4–2.7) 0.6 (0.3–1.0) 0.0 (0.0–0.2) 0.1*** (0.0–0.3) [25]
Portugal 2008–2010 47 2.1*** (0.1–10.1) 0.0*** (0.0–6.2) 2.1*** (0.1–10.1) 0.0 (0.0–6.2) 0.0 (0.0–6.2) 0.0*** (0.0–6.2) [43]
Romania 2012–2014 121 21.5*** (14.9–29.5) 0.0*** (0.0–2.4) 19.8* (13.5–27.7) 0.8 (0.0–4.0) 0.0 (0.0–2.4) 0.0*** (0.0–2.4) [44]
Romania 2000–2005 71 7.0*** (2.6–14.9) 0.0*** (0.0–4.1) 5.6*** (1.8–13.0) 1.4 (0.1–6.7) 0.0 (0.0–4.1) 0.0** (0.0–4.1) [45]
Serbia 2009–2010 57 12.3*** (5.5–22.8) 0.0*** (0.0–5.1) 3.5*** (0.6–11.1) 8.8** (3.3–18.4) 0.0 (0.0–5.1) 3.5 (0.6–11.1) [46]
Slovakia 2000–2007 5270 11.5*** (10.7–12.4)       [47]
Slovakia 2007 601 20.3*** (17.2–23.7) 0.0*** (0.0–0.5) 20.3*** (17.2–23.7) 0.3 (0.1–1.1) 0.2 (0.0–0.8) 0.5*** (0.1–1.4) [47]
Slovakia 2000–2006 4669 10.4*** (9.5–11.3) 0.0*** (0.0–0.1) 8.3*** (7.6–9.2) 0.1 (0.0–0.2) 0.0 (0.0–0.1) 0.0*** (0.0–0.1) [48]
Slovakia 2000 545 6.1*** (4.3–8.3) 0.0*** (0.0–0.5) 6.1*** (4.3–8.3) 0.0 (0.0–0.5) 0.0 (0.0–0.5) 0.0*** (0.0–0.5) [47]
Spain 400 15.5*** (12.2–19.3)   15.3*** (12.0–19.0)     [49]
Spain 1997–1999 67 8.9*** (3.7–17.7)       [50]
Spain 1985–1997 227 2.6*** (1.1–5.4) 0.0*** (0.0–1.3) 1.8*** (0.6–4.2) 0.9 (0.1–2.9) 0.0 (0.0–1.3) 0.0*** (0.0–1.3) [51]
Spain 1989–1993 84 1.2*** (0.1–5.7)       [52]
Sweden 1985–2003 1800 4.5*** (3.6–5.5)       [53]
Switzerland 2006–2007 1289 1.6*** (1.0–2.4) 0.0*** (0.0–0.2) 1.6*** (1.0–2.4) 0.0 (0.0–0.2) 0.0 (0.0–0.2) 0.0*** (0.0–0.2) [54]
United Kingdom (Great Britain) 2003–2007 1144 0.0*** (0.0–0.3) 0.0*** (0.0–0.3) 0.0*** (0.0–0.3) 0.0 (0.0–0.3) 0.0 (0.0–0.3) 0.0*** (0.0–0.3) [55]
United Kingdom (Northern Ireland) 2003–2004; 2006–2007 443 0.2*** (0.0–1.1) 0.0*** (0.0–0.7) 0.0*** (0.0–0.7) 0.2 (0.0–1.1) 0.0 (0.0–0.7) 0.0*** (0.0–0.7) [56]
  1. Abbreviations: Tn, Trichinella nativa; Tb, Trichinella britovi; Ts, Trichinella spiralis; Tp, Trichinella pseudospiralis
  2. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001