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Table 5 Survey of insecticide types and usage in three study settings in Guangzhou, China

From: Evidence for multiple-insecticide resistance in urban Aedes albopictus populations in southern China

  Mosquito status n Urban Suburban Rural
Insecticide Frequency Insecticide Frequency Insecticide Frequency
Community usage Adult 8 Pyrethrins: cypermethrin, beta-cypermethrin 1–2 times/month Pyrethrin: cypermethrin; Organophosphates: DDVP None or 1 time/year Pyrethrin: cypermethrin None or 1 time/year
Larvae 8 Organophosphates: temephos, mevinphos, fenthion; Biological insecticides: bacillus sphaericus 1–2 times/month
Shop sold Adult 10 Organophosphates: chlorpyrifos; carbamates: propoxur; Pyrethrin: prallethrin, cypermethrin, beta-cypermethrin, meperfluthrin, dimefluthrin, Es-Bioallethrin, tetramethrin Pyrethrin: cypermethrin, beta-cypermethrin, permethrin, meperfluthrin, dimefluthrin, prallethrin; Carbamates: propoxur Organophosphates: chlorpyrifos Organophosphates: DDVP, phoxim; Pyrethrin: meperfluthrin, dimefluthrin, Es-Bioallethrin, tetramethrin, cypermethrin, deyphenothrin
Resident usage Adult 80 Pyrethrin: meperfluthrin, dimefluthrin, prallethrin, rich-d-transallethrin None or 1 time/week(use at night) Pyrethrin: meperfluthrin, dimefluthrin, prallethrin, rich-d-transallethrin, Es-Bioallethrin 5–7 times/week(use at night) Pyrethrin: dimefluthrin, Es-Bioallethrin, rich-d-transallethrin, meperfluthrin, tetramethrin 5–7 times/week (use at night)
Agriculture usage Rice field 10 Organophosphates: acephate 1–2 times/month
Farm land 10 Pyrethrin: beta-cypermethrin, meperfluthrin; Organophosphates: DDVP, phoxim, Chlorpyrifos, dipterex 1–2 times/week Organophosphates: DDVP, dipterex, acephate; Carbamates: methyl isocyanate 1 time/month