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Table 2 Residual bio-efficacy in months of insecticides from routine program monitoring, WHO guidelines, and previous studies

From: Multi-country assessment of residual bio-efficacy of insecticides used for indoor residual spraying in malaria control on different surface types: results from program monitoring in 17 PMI/USAID-supported IRS countries

Insecticide Range of residual efficacy from program monitoringa Suggested residual efficacy per WHO reportb Residual efficacy found in other studiesc
Alpha-cypermethrin WP 4–10 (n = 14) 4–6 • Up to 14 (plastic coated plywood), < 1 (cement) in Sao Tome and Principe [41];
• 1.5 against sand flies in Morocco [42]d;
• 2.75 to 4 in India [43]e
Deltamethrin WG 1–10 (n = 24) 3–6 • 6.5 (concrete), 5 (mud) and 3.8 (wood) in Cameroon [18];
• 3 (plastered), 2.5 (mud) and 1 (cement) in Iran [26]f;
• 15 months (wood, bamboo and brick) in Malaysia [45]g
Bendiocarb WP < 1–7 (n = 59) 2–6 • 1.5 (red clay and mixture of red clay and cement) and 1.75 (mixture of sand and cement) in Benin [21];
• Between 2 and 5 months in Equatorial Guinea [46];
• 6 in Mozambique [47];
• > 3.25 in Cameroon [18]
Pirimiphos-methyl CS 2–9 (n = 57) 4–6 • 9 months in Benin [51]h;
• 8 (mud, cement plastered, lime wash, water paint) and > 9 (oil paint) in Tanzania [54];
• 4 (mud) and 5 (concrete) in Côte d’Ivoire [11]
Pirimiphos-methyl EC 2 (n = 8) 2–3 na
  1. aSource: Authors’ calculations from field collected data
  2. bSources: [32, 34]
  3. cSources as listed. (n = the number of test observations included in the current dataset)
  4. dFor alpha-cypermethrin SC;
  5. ealpha-cypermethrin WP and WG; doses of 20 mg/m2 and 30 mg/ m2; no significant difference was observed between the two formulations and dosages
  6. f50, 40 and 25 mg/m2 dosages, respectively; tested on laboratory-reared Anopheles stephensi strain
  7. gAedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus strains
  8. hDosage of 0.5 g/m2