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Table 6 Comparison of changes in awareness and attitudes towards continued open defecation and latrine ownership as reported spontaneously from the household-based questionnaire between control and intervention communities

From: Effect of an integrated intervention package of preventive chemotherapy, community-led total sanitation and health education on the prevalence of helminth and intestinal protozoa infections in Côte d’Ivoire

Awarness and attitude Group Proportion (%) in 2011 OR (95% CI) P-value Proportion (%) in 2012 OR (95% CI) P-value Change between 2011 and 2012 (McNemar’s test)
OR (95% CI) P-value
Problems associated with open defecation (n = 315), spontaneously mentioned
Safety Control 51.90 1   28.48 1   0.30 (0.16–0.54) <  0.001
  Intervention 56.05 1.18 (0.76–1.84) 0.460 23.57 0.77 (0.47–1.28) 0.321 0.23 (0.12–0.40) <  0.001
Hygiene Control 24.05 1   34.18 1   1.70 (0.99–2.97) 0.056
  Intervention 26.11 1.12 (0.67–1.86) 0.673 36.31 1.10 (0.69–1.74) 0.693 1.55 (0.95–2.57) 0.081
No comfort Control 22.15 1   6.33 1   0.19 (0.07–0.47) <  0.001
  Intervention 28.66 1.41 (0.85–2.35) 0.185 8.28 1.34 (0.57–3.14) 0.507 0.22 (0.09–0.46) <  0.001
Privacy Control 22.15 1   22.78 1   1.04 (0.57–1.90) 1.000
  Intervention 5.73 0.21 (0.10–0.46) < 0.001 11.46 0.44 (0.24–0.81) 0.009 2.8 (0.95–9.93) 0.064
Pollutes environment Control 20.89 1   18.35 1   0.85 (0.47–1.54) 0.672
  Intervention 20.38 0.97 (0.56–1.67) 0.912 52.23 4.86 (2.92–8.10) <  0.001 6.56 (3.23–15.04) <  0.001
Difficulties for elderly or sick people Control 9.49 1   1.90 1   0.14 (0.02–0.62) 0.004
  Intervention 2.55 0.25 (0.08–0.77) 0.016 1.91 1.01 (0.20–5.06) 0.994 0.75 (0.11–4.43) 1.000
Visitors Control 5.06 1   8.23 1   1.83 (0.62–6.04) 0.332
  Intervention 1.27 0.24 (0.05–1.16) 0.076 5.10 0.60 (0.24–1.49) 0.269 4.00 (0.80–38.67) 0.109
Abundance of flies/insects Control 2.53 1   20.25 1   8.00 (2.84–31.14) <  0.001
  Intervention 5.73 2.34 (0.71–7.77) 0.164 18.47 0.89 (0.51–1.56) 0.689 3.86 (1.64–10.49) <  0.001
Drinking water quality Control 2.53 1   0.63 1   0.25 (0.01–2.53) 0.375
  Intervention 1.27 0.50 (0.09–2.75) 0.423 0.64 1.01 (0.06–16.23) 0.996 0.50 (0.01–9.61) 1.000
Reasons to possess a latrine (n = 89 in 2011, n = 249 in 2012, n = 69 with data for both years)a, spontaneously mentioned
Comfort Control 44.12 1   8.22 1   0.05 (0.00–0.30) <  0.001
  Intervention 33.33 0.63 (0.23–1.77) 0.383 9.09 1.12 (0.42–2.98) 0.825 0.00 (0.00–0.85) 0.031
Clean environment Control 32.35 1   31.51 1   0.80 (0.27–2.25) 0.815
  Intervention 42.86 1.57 (0.58–4.27) 0.379 46.02 1.85 (1.04–3.30) 0.036 1.00 (0.13–7.47) 1.000
Safety Control 32.35 1   30.14 1   0.54 (0.18–1.45) 0.263
  Intervention 28.57 0.84 (0.29–2.45) 0.744 18.75 0.53 (0.29–1.00) 0.051 1.00 (0.19–5.37) 1.000
Privacy Control 20.59 1   23.29 1   0.86 (0.27–2.76) 1.000
  Intervention 19.05 0.91 (0.26–3.13) 0.878 21.59 0.91 (0.47–1.74) 0.769 1.67 (0.32–10.73) 0.727
Avoid diseases Control 19.12 1   38.36 1   2.50 (0.92–7.86) 0.078
  Intervention 14.29 0.71 (0.18–2.76) 0.616 39.77 1.06 (0.61–1.86) 0.835 5.00 (0.56–236.49) 0.219
Easier for elderly or sick people Control 17.65 1   10.96 1   0.38 (0.06–1.56) 0.227
  Intervention 0.00 na na 1.70 0.14 (0.04–0.55) 0.005 na  
Hygiene/Health Control 8.82 1   39.73 1   16.00 (2.49–670.96) <  0.001
  Intervention 19.05 2.43 (0.62–9.61) 0.205 28.41 0.60 (0.34–1.07) 0.082 2.50 (0.41–26.25) 0.453
Visitors Control 8.82 1   13.70 1   1.40 (0.38–5.59) 0.774
  Intervention 0.00 na na 9.09 0.63 (0.27–1.46) 0.282 na na
Reason to practice open defecation (n = 349 for 2011, n = 188 for 2012, n = 149 with data for both years)a, spontaneously mentioned
No functional latrine on spot Control 77.71 1   72.79 1   0.91 (0.46–1.77) 0.875
  Intervention 90.10 2.61 (1.43–4.78) 0.002 41.46 0.27 (0.13–0.54) <  0.001 na <  0.001
Traditional habit Control 22.93 1   10.88 1   0.25 (0.08–0.63) 0.001
  Intervention 18.23 0.75 (0.44–1.26) 0.279 7.32 0.65 (0.18–2.34) 0.506 0.17 (0.02–0.75) 0.013
Comfort Control 4.46 1   2.04 1   0.40 (0.04–2.44) 0.453
  Intervention 2.60 0.57 (0.18–1.84) 0.350 0.00 na na na na
Difficulties with maintenance/construction Control 0.64 1   5.44 1   5.00 (0.56–236.49) 0.219
  Intervention 0.00 na na 9.76 1.88 (0.54–6.58) 0.324 na  
  1. aSelective question type; total number of respondents therefore changed by year and only households who did not undergo change in toilet ownership or practice of open defecation could be analysed for changes over time, as assessed by McNemar’s test