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Table 4 Insecticide resistance levels and resistance mechanisms involved in different An. gambiae (s.l.) populations

From: The current insecticide resistance status of Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) (Culicidae) in rural and urban areas of Bouaké, Côte d’Ivoire

  Allokokro Petessou Dar Es Salam Kennedy N’gattakro
Perm RR RR RR RR RR
Delta RR RR RR RR RR
α-cyp RR RR RR RR RR
DDT RR RR RR RR RR
Bend RS RS RS RS RS
Carbo RS RS RS RS NT
Chlor SS SS SS SS SS
Piri SS SS SS SS RR
L1014F kdr ++ ++ ++ ++ ++
ace-1R G119S + + + + +
NSE > > > > >
MFO > > = = <
GST > = > > >
  1. Abbreviations: Perm permethrin, Delta deltamethrin, α-cyp alphacypermethrin, DDT dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, Bend bendiocarb, Carbo carbosulfan, Chlor chlorpyri-methyl, Piri pirimi-methyl, kdr knockdown resistance, ace-1 acetylcholinesterase-1, NSE non-specific esterases, MFO mixed-function oxidase (cytochrome P450), GST glutathione S-transferase, SS susceptible, RS intermediate, RR resistant, NT not tested, + low frequency, ++ high frequency (kdr and ace-1), < low activity, = similar activity, > high activity (compared to Kisumu)