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Table 2 Structural equation model statistical output showing host characteristics predicting infection status for co-infecting pathogens (except Leishmania infantum), and the covariance among pathogens (including L. infantum), in domestic dogs. In all cases, except age, variables are binomial (0 or 1) with 1 equal to male, outside, ectoparasitic prevention use, pedigree and positive pathogen status

From: Association between canine leishmaniosis and Ehrlichia canis co-infection: a prospective case-control study

  Standardised coefficient/covariance z-value P-value
E. canis
 Age -0.081 -0.790 0.429
 Sex -0.034 -0.391 0.696
 Lifestyle 0.042 0.351 0.726
 Ectoparasite prevention 0.099 0.749 0.454
 Breed 0.055 0.634 0.526
A. platys
 Age 0.113 1.187 0.235
 Sex -0.069 -0.789 0.430
 Lifestyle 0.114 1.445 0.148
 Ectoparasitic prevention -0.003 -0.028 0.978
 Breed -0.151 -1.161 0.246
Hepatozoon spp.
 Age -0.173 -1.966 0.049
 Sex -0.054 -0.623 0.534
 Lifestyle 0.046 0.399 0.690
 Ectoparasitic prevention 0.010 0.079 0.937
 Breed 0.007 0.071 0.943
M. haemocanis
 Age -0.127 -1.650 0.099*
 Sex 0.030 0.348 0.728
 Lifestyle 0.096 0.921 0.357
 Ectoparasitic prevention -0.034 -0.287 0.774
 Breed -0.046 -0.439 0.661
Covariances
E. canis - Leishmaniosis 0.243 2.303 0.021
A. platys - Leishmaniosis 0.020 0.223 0.824
Hepatozoon spp. - Leishmaniosis 0.034 0.393 0.694
M. haemocanis - Leishmaniosis 0.099 1.115 0.265
E. canis - A. platys -0.031 -0.889 0.374
E. canis - Hepatozoon spp. -0.028 -0.312 0.755
E. canis - M. haemocanis -0.046 -0.598 0.550
A. platys - Hepatozoon spp. -0.098 -1.130 0.258
A. platys - M. haemocanis 0.072 0.647 0.517
 Hepatozoon spp. - M. haemocanis 0.158 1.761 0.078*
  1. Abbreviations: A. platys, Anaplasma platys; E. canis, Ehrlichia canis; M. haemocanis, Mycoplasma haemocanis
  2. Significant relationships (P ≤ 0.05) denoted by bold font and trending relationships (P < 0.1) denoted by *