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Table 4 Tick-borne pathogen species and their prevalence (%) in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in European countries

From: Ticks are more suitable than red foxes for monitoring zoonotic tick-borne pathogens in northeastern Italy

Pathogens Foxes tested % Country Reference
A. phagocytophilum 506 0.6 Austria [33]
25 4.0 Czech Republic [56]
415 12.5 Hungary [30]
122 8.2 Germany [43]
150 16.6 Italy [29]
153 0.65 Italy [32]
353 2.5 Romania [31]
162 3.0 Switzerland [57]
Babesia cf. microtia 36 50.0 Austria [58]
351–506 50.7–25.7b Austria [33]
191 5.0 Croatia [59]
121 46.5 Germany [48]
195 47.5 Germany [60]
316 14.6 Great Britain [61]
404 20.0 Hungary [62]
153 22.9 Italy [32]
78 37.2 Italy [63]
180 59.0 Italy [64]
91 69.2 Portugal [65]
300 9.7 Slovakia [66]
Babesia canis 351 0.3 Austria [33]
91 1.1 Portugal [65]
Bartonella rochalimae 506 0.2 Austria [33]
Borrelia burgdorferi (s.l.) 353 1.4 Romania [31]
Ca. Neoehrlichia sp.” 164 0.6 Austria [67]
506 0.4 Austria [33]
Coxiella burnetii 153 1.96 Italy [32]
Ehrlichia canis 105 52.0 Italy [68]
153 44.4 Italy [32]
13 31.0 Italy [68]
180 6.1 Italy [64]
Hepatozoon canis 36 58.3 Austria [58]
351–506 18.5–29.8b Austria [33]
191 23.0 Croatia [59]
415 22.2 Hungary [30]
153 49.0 Italy [32]
78 53.8 Italy [63]
119 13.4 Italy [69]
Rickettsia helvetica 162 1.0 Switzerland [57]
Rickettsia spp. 180 5.0 Italy [64]
  1. aSyns. B. microti-like, “Theileria annae”, “B. annae”, “B. vulpes”
  2. bIn blood and spleen of foxes, respectively