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Table 2 Comparison of major coprolite and intestinal wash methods.

From: Recovering parasites from mummies and coprolites: an epidemiological approach

Method Prelima Quantb Rehydratc Disaggregd Screeninge Concentf Post-analysisg
Callen Cleaned, imaged, sectioned or cored Lyco 0.5% Na3PO4; 48hr Magnetic stirrer, active separation of particles w/ water jet and spatula 250 μm mesh Centrifuge Retain all macro and micro remains and unprocessed section
Lutz, Korea 0.5% Na3PO4; 1 wk Agitation Three layers of double gauze Passive sediment 1 day then mixed w/10% neutral buffered formalin
Lutz, Brazil Cleaned 0.5% Na3PO4 Glass stir rod Three layers of double gauze Passive sediment 1 day Retain all macro and micro remains and unprocessed section
Reims 0.5% Na3PO4 in 5% glycerin- water w/ formalin Crushed then ultrasonic treatment Screened w/315 mm, 160 mm, 50 mm, and 25 mm meshes. Micro remains retained on screen
  1. a“Prelim” refers to preliminary preparation of samples
  2. b“Quant” refers to egg per gram (epg) quantification method
  3. c“Rehydrat” refers to solution and time
  4. d“Disaggreg” shows how the rehydrated samples are disaggregated
  5. e“Screening” refers to how macroscopic remains are separated from microscopic
  6. f“Concent” refers to methods of concentrating microscopic remains
  7. g“Post analysis” relates to sample conservation
  8. Abbreviations: “Lyco” refers to the application of quantification method based on Lycopodium counting