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Table 8 Nematodes known or suspected to induce false positive results in canine serum, plasma, or whole blood samples tested on heartworm antigen tests without heat pretreatment of samples

From: Prime detection of Dirofilaria immitis: understanding the influence of blocked antigen on heartworm test performance

Species of nematode Dirofilaria immitis antigen detected (number positive/number tested) Origin of samples tested Reference
Angiostrongylus vasorum 0/16 to 8/16a Domestic dogs experimentally infected with An. vasorum [49]
Spirocerca lupi 2/19 to 14/48a Domestic dogsc with confirmed esophageal spirocercosis, resided in area without autochthonous D. immitis [50]
8/32 Domestic dogsc with confirmed esophageal spirocercosis; PCR negative for D. immitis microfilaria
Acanthocheilonema odendhali 15/15 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) with microfilaria of A. odendhali [51]
Dirofilaria ursi 6/10 North American brown bear (Ursus arctos) presumed infected based on geographic location (northern Canada) [52]
Angiostrongylus vasorum 1/3 to 3/3a Domestic dogsc naturally infected with An. vasorum confirmed by serum antigen test for An. vasorum and fecal; history of consistent heartworm preventive use [53]
Dirofilaria repens 0/4 to 2/4a, b Domestic dogsc naturally infected with D. repens as confirmed by microfilaria and subcutaneous nodules [53]
  1. aResults varied depending on heartworm antigen assay used
  2. bWith heat pretreatment of samples, increased to 4/4
  3. cPet dogs, true heartworm status unknown