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Table 1 Pathogens detected in, or transmitted by, I. ricinus. Pathogens are defined here as microorganisms which have been implicated in disease, because of evidence of infection in patients. Some pathogens have only caused disease in immune compromised cases. For most pathogens the Koch’s postulates have not been fulfilled and solid epidemiological evidence is lacking too [217]. Some pathogens, particularly Bartonella, Francisella and Coxiella, have other main modes of transmission. Transmission of Hepatozoon spp. by I. ricinus is not proven, but the infection of animals with Hepatozoon spp. usually involves the digestion of infected ticks. Finally, human infections of TBEV have also occurred through ingestion of contaminated, unpasteurized milk products [218], and other tick-borne pathogens have been transmitted via blood transfusion

From: Control of Lyme borreliosis and other Ixodes ricinus-borne diseases

Microorganism Variants Disease Reference
Borrelia burgdorferi (s.l.) B. afzelii Human [23, 91, 219]
B. garinii Human
B. burgdorferi (s.s.) Human/ animal
B. spielmanii Human
B. valaisiana Human
B. bavariensis Human
B. bissetti Human
B. finlandensis
B. lusitaniae Human
B. turdi
Babesia species B. venatorum Human/animal [220,221,222]
B. divergens Human/ animal
B. microti Human
B. capreoli Animal
B. odocoilei(-like)
Spotted fever rickettsia R. helvetica Human [223]
R. monacensis Human
Anaplasma phagocytophilum Ecotype I Human /animal [224]
Ecotype II
Borrelia miyamotoi Russian Human [17]
European Human
Neoehrlichia mikurensis   Human/animal [225, 226]
Spiroplasma ixodetes   Human/animal [227, 228]
Orbivirus Kemerovo virus Human [229]
Lipovnik virus Human
Tribeč virus Human
Flaviviruses Tick-borne encephalitis virus Human [18, 230, 231]
Louping ill virus Animal/ human
Nairovirus Grotenhout virus [232]
Coltivirus Eyach virus Human [230, 233]
Phlebovirus viruses Uukuniemi(-like) virus [234]
Midichloria midichondria   [235]
Hepatozoon species   [236]
Coxiella burnetti   Human/animal [237]
Francisella tularensis F. tularensis holarctica Human/animal [238, 239]
Bartonella species   Human [240]