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Table 3 Univariate analysis of risk factors related to the presence of ticks and lice at the farm-level in the municipality of Santarém, Brazil

From: Prevalence and risk factors associated with ectoparasite infestation of buffaloes in an Amazonian ecosystem

Risk factor Ticks Lice
  Positive/total (%) P a OR (95% CI) Positive/total (%) P a OR (95% CI)
Farm location   < 0.001 24.00 (2.91−198.10)   0.002 7.66 (1.93−30.43)
 Dry land 17/34 (50.0)    17/34 (50.0)   
 Floodplain 1/26 (3.85)    3/26 (11.5)   
Herd size   na na   na na
 Medium 0/2 (0.0)    1/2 (50.0)   
 Micro 6/34 (17.6)    6/34 (17.6)   
 Small 12/24 (54.1)    13/24 (54.1)   
Animals go to floodplain area   0.003 0.25 (0.03−1.64)   0.741 0.72 (0.11−4.76)
 Yes 15/55 (27.2)    18/55 (32.7)   
 No 3/5 (60.0)    2/5 (40.0)   
Type of pasture   0.019 b   0.066 na
 Cultivated 9/19 (47.3)    6/19 (31.5)   
 Mixed 3/5 (60.0)    4/5 (80.0)   
 Native 6/36 (16.6)    10/36 (27.7)   
Type of grazing   0.001 c   0.097 na
 Alternating 9/14 (64.2)    8/14 (57.1)   
 Continuous 5/42 (11.9)    11/42 (26.1)   
 Rotational 4/4 (100.0)    1/4 (25.0)   
Mixed overgrowth pastures   0.126 0.27 (0.04−1.79)   0.509 2.11 (0.22−20.26)
 Yes 15/55 (27.7)    19/55 (34.5)   
 No 3/5 (60.0)    1/5 (20.0)   
Control ectoparasites   0.066 2.41 (0.73−7.96)   < 0.001 11.00 (2.24−53.86)
 Yes 14/36 (38.8)    18/36 (50.0)   
 No 4/24 (16.6)    2/24 (8.3)   
Presence of wild animals   0.907 0.91 (0.20−4.12)   0.443 0.57 (0.13−2.41)
 Yes 15/51 (31.3)    16/51 (31.3)   
 No 3/9 (33.3)    4/9 (44.4)   
  1. aCalculated using Chi-square or Fisher's tests
  2. bType of pasture: cultivated vs mixed (OR: 0.60, P = 1.00); cultivated vs native (OR: 4.50, P = 0.015); mixed vs native (OR: 7.50, P = 0.06)
  3. cType of grazing: alternating vs continuous (OR: 13.32, P < 0.0001); alternating vs rotational (OR: 0.19, P = 0.278); continuous vs rotational (OR: 0.02, P = 0.0008)
  4. Notes: A farm was considered positive when at least 1 of the examined animals was infested with lice or ticks. Herd size: micro (1−15 animals); small (16−100 animals); medium (101−500 animals). Mixed overgrowth is the presence of undesired plants such as bushes and shrubs in the pasture
  5. Abbreviations: OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; na, not available.