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Table 4 Farm and OVI-trap collection site habitat characteristics with total Culicoides abundance and catch break-down (%) per farm and relative density (low; +, medium; ++, high; +++) of habitat classes

From: Culicoides species composition and abundance on Irish cattle farms: implications for arboviral disease transmission

Farm ID 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Total no. Culicoides 257 4001 1687 4285 1651 1549 2257 3040 2105 3022
C. obsoletus/C. scoticus (%) 25 27 33 36 43 27 43 62 43 32
C. dewulfi (%) 32 35 51 42 30 55 24 17 44 39
C. pulicaris (%) 19 12 4 10 16 4 7 6 4 14
C. punctatus (%) 6 13 2 2 1 2 12 1 2 2
C. chiopterus (%) 12 2 5 8 1 10 6 1 6 3
 Other Culicoides species 6 11 4 2 9 2 7 13 2 10
Animals (No.)           
 Bovines 230 180 212 390 169 241 324 677 106 142
 Ovines 100       26    
Altitude (m) 76 128 177 45 131 79 37 70 81 84
Grassland
 Improved +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ +++
 Semi-improved      ++   +   + +
 Marshy      +      
Woodland/Scrub
 Broadleaf   ++ ++ ++ ++   +++ + +++ +
 Coniferous + +   ++ +    ++   
 Scrub      +    + ++ +
Boundaries/Margins
 Native woodland species + +++ ++ +++ +++ + + ++ +++ +++
 Non-native shrub/tree species + + + + + +    + +
 Stone walls +++     ++      
Scattered trees
 Broadleaf + + + ++ +   ++ +++ + +
 Coniferous    + + +      +
Cow roadways +++ ++ + + + +++ +++ +++ + ++
Waterways/ditches
 Stream P   P   P      
 River     P   P P   P P
 Dry ditch P P    P P   P P P
OVI-trap distance (m) from
 Farmyard 100 150 100 100 10 150 500 20 25 20
 Manure storage point 150 150 75 150 50 150 500 20 50 20
  1. Abbreviation: P, present