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Table 2 Bioactive phytochemicals in chicory (Cichorium intybus) and their reported bioactivity

From: Antiparasitic activity of chicory (Cichorium intybus) and its natural bioactive compounds in livestock: a review

Bioactive compounds Molecular formula Reported bioactivity Model Reference for bioactivity
Guaianolide sesquiterpene lactones
 Lactucin C15H16O5 antiprotozoal Plasmodium falciparum [72]
 11,13-dihydrolactucin C15H18O5 nr   
 8-deoxylactucin C15H16O4 anti-inflammatory HT29 cells [75]
insecticidal Schistocerca gregaria [68]
 11,13-dihydro-8-deoxylactucin C15H18O4 nr   
 Lactucopicrin C23H22O7 antiprotozoal Plasmodium falciparum [72]
  insecticidal Schistocerca gregaria [68]
 11,13-dihydrolactucopicrin C23H24O7 nr   
Hydroxycinnamic acids
 Monocaffeoyl tartaric acid (Caftaric acid) C13H12O9 nr   
 Chlorogenic acid C16H18O9 antibacterial Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhimurium [76]
 Caffeic acid C9H8O4 anticancer Fibrosarcoma (HT-1080) [77]
acaricidal Rhipicephalus annulatus [78]
 Chicoric acid C22H18O12 insecticidal Schistocerca gregaria [68]
p-Coumaric acid C9H8O3 anti-inflammatory Female albino rats of Wistar strain (in vivo) [79]
 Caffeoylmalic acid C13H12O8 nr   
 Ferulic acid C10H10O4 nr   
 Quercetin 3-O-glucuronide + Luteolin 7-O-glucuronide C21H18O13 acaricidal Rhipicephalus annulatus [78]
 Quercetin malonyl glucoside C24H22O15 nr   
 Apigenin glucuronide C21H18O11 nr   
 Kaempferol glucuronide C21H18O12 anticancer and anti-inflammatory Human pancreatic cancer cells [80]
 Isorhamnetin 3-glucuronide C22H20O13 nr   
 Kaempferol-7-O-(6″-O-malonyl)-glucoside C24H22O14 nr   
 Cyanidin 3-O-glucoside C21H21O11+ nr   
 Cyanidin 3-O-(6-malonyl)-glucoside C24H23O14+ anti-inflammatory Lipid peroxidation and cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and -2) inhibition assay [81]
 Cichoriin C18H20O3 insecticidal Schistocerca gregaria [68]
  1. Notes: p-Coumaric acid, p-Coumaric acid, Ferulic acid, Isorhamnetin 3-glucuronide and kaempferol-7-O-(6″-O-malonyl)-glucoside were purified and identified by Papetti et al. [74]. Cichorin A was detected and identified by Rees & Harboure [68]. The remaining compounds were identified by Ferioli et al. [73]. All studies reporting bioactivity were performed in vitro, unless otherwise indicated (in vivo)
  2. Abbreviations: nr not reported