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Table 3 Bi-variable analysis of factors associated with malnutrition at the start of the malaria transmission season

From: Is chronic malnutrition associated with an increase in malaria incidence? A cohort study in children aged under 5 years in rural Gambia

Risk factor Stunting (N = 2511) Wasting (N = 2508) Underweight (N = 2516)
Prevalence n/N (%) Odds ratiob (95% CI) P-value Prevalence n/N (%) Odds ratiob (95% CI) P-value Prevalence n/N (%) Odds ratiob (95% CI) P-value
Gender
 Male 420/1338 (31.4) 1   157/1337 (11.7) 1   331/1341 (24.7) 1  
 Female 376/1173 (32.1) 1.06 (0.89–1.26) 0.5 115/1171 (9.8) 0.81 (0.63–1.05) 0.1 293/1175 (24.9) 1.03 (0.86–1.24) 0.8
Ethnicity
 Fula 426/1066 (40.0) 1   125/1068 (11.7) 1   322/1071 (30.1) 1  
 Mandinka 297/1201 (24.7) 0.49 (0.40–0.61) <0.001 117/1194 (9.8) 0.81 (0.60–1.09) 0.2 235/1198 (19.6) 0.56 (0.45–0.70) <0.001
 Others 71/240 (29.6) 0.63 (0.45–0.90) 0.01 29/242 (12.0) 1.03 (0.64–1.65) 0.9 66/243 (27.2) 0.86 (0.60–1.22) 0.4
Village location
 South bank 396/1220 (32.5) 1   136/1218 (11.2) 1   310/1222 (25.4) 1  
 North bank 400/1291 (31.0) 0.93 (0.71–1.22) 0.6 136/1290 (10.5) 0.94 (0.71–1.25) 0.7 314/1294 (24.3) 0.95 (0.74–1.22) 0.7
House construction
 Modern 400/1445 (27.7) 1   169/1442 (11.7) 1   347/1447 (24.0) 1  
 Traditionala 396/1066 (37.1) 1.44 (1.19–1.73) <0.001 103/1066 (9.7) 0.81 (0.62–1.06) 0.1 277/1069 (25.9) 1.04 (0.86–1.27) 0.7
Slept under an LLIN
 No 3/16 (18.8) 1   3/16 (18.8) 1   5/16 (31.3) 1  
 Yes 749/2351 (31.9) 1.91 (0.53–6.95) 0.3 249/2349 (10.6) 0.49 (0.14–1.77) 0.3 579/2356 (24.6) 0.73 (0.24–2.16) 0.6
House received DDT-IRS
 No 396/1248 (31.7) 1   126/1251 (10.1) 1   306/1254 (24.4) 1  
 Yes 400/1263 (31.7) 0.97 (0.74–1.27) 0.8 146/1257 (11.6) 1.16 (0.87–1.54) 0.3 318/1262 (25.2) 1.00 (0.78–1.29) 1.0
  1. aAt least 50% of rooms with mud walls and thatched roof
  2. bAdjusted for clustering