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Table 5 Prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (in parentheses) of the enteric protozoan species identified in stool samples from the investigated population (n = 766) by conventional microscopy, Paranaguá, Paraná, Brazil, 2015–2016

From: Prevalence of intestinal parasites, with emphasis on the molecular epidemiology of Giardia duodenalis and Blastocystis sp., in the Paranaguá Bay, Brazil: a community survey

Variable N Pathogenic Uncertain pathogenicity Commensals
Giardia duodenalis Blastocystis sp. Entamoeba complex Endolimax nana Iodamoeba bütschlii Entamoeba coli Entamoeba hartmanni Chilomastix mesnilii Retortamonas intestinalis
Community
 Ilha do Mel1 46 6.5 (1.7–16.7) 28.3 (16.7–42.5) 6.5 (1.7–16.7) 15.2 (6.9–27.8) 0 (0.0–6.3) 6.5 (1.7–16.7) 6.5 (1.7–16.7) 0 (0.0–6.3) 2.2 (0.1–10.3)
 Ilha do Teixeira1 58 3.4 (0.6–10.9) 22.4a* (13.1–34.5) 0 (0.0–5.0) 31.0d**, e**, f** (20.2–43.8) 0 (0.0–5.0) 3.4 (0.6–10.9) 0 (0.0–5.0) 0 (0.0–5.0) 0 (0.0–5.0)
 Ilha do Amparo1 90 13.3 (7.4–21.6) 41.1a*, b** (31.3–51.5) 0 (0.0–3.3) 27.8g**, h**, i** (19.3–37.7) 0 (0.0–3.3) 3.3 (0.9–8.8) 4.4 (1.4–10.4) 1.1 (0.1–5.4) 1.1 (0.1–5.4)
 Jardim Esperança2 221 14.5 (10.3–19.6) 32.6 (26.6–39) 2.7 (1.1–5.6) 14.5d**, g** (10.3–19.6) 2.3 (0.8–4.9) 2.7 (1.1–5.6) 5.0 (2.6–8.5) 0.9 (0.0–2.3) 0 (0.0–1.3)
 Ilha dos Valadares2 286 10.1 (7–14.1) 20.3b**, c** (15.9–25.2) 1.0 (0.3–2.8) 8.7e**, h** (5.9–12.5) 0 (0.0–1.0) 5.6 (3.3–8.7) 3.8 (2.0–6.6) 0 (0.0–1.0) 0 (0.0–1.0)
 Ponta do Caju2 65 9.2 (3.8–18.2) 35.4c** (24.5–47.5) 3.1 (0.5–9.8) 10.8f**, i** (4.8–20.1) 0 (0.0–4.5) 3.1 (0.5–9.8) 3.1 (0.5–9.8) 0 (0.0–4.5) 0 (0.0–4.5)
Gender
 Male 382 13.4j* (10.2–17) 28.0 (23.7–32.7) 1.8 (0.8–3.6) 14.9 (11.6–18.8) 0.8 (0.2–2.1) 3.5k* (1.8–6.2) 3.9 (2.3–6.3) 0.5 (0.1–1.7) 0.3 (0–1.3)
 Female 384 8.6j* (6.1–11.7) 28.4 (24.0–33.1) 1.8 (0.8–3.6) 14.8 (11.6–18.7) 0.5 (0.1–1.7) 5.7k* (3.7–8.4) 4.2 (2.5–6.5) 0.3 (0.0–1.3) 0.3 (0.0–1.3)
Age group (years)
 0–4 66 13.6l* (6.9–23.6) 25.8 (16.3–37.3) 0 (0.0–4.4) 12.1 (5.8–21.7) 0 (0.0–4.4) 4.5 (1.2–11.9) 1.5 (0.1–7.2) 0 (0.0–4.4) 0 (0.0–4.4)
 5–9 412 13.3m** (10.3–16.9) 26.9 (22.8–31.4) 1.5 (0.6–3.0) 10.4n**, o*, p** (7.8–13.7) 0.7 (0.2–2.0) 2.9 (1.6–4.9) 3.4 (2.0–5.5) 0.2 (0.0–1.2) 0 (0.0–0.7)
 10–14 146 9.6 (5.6–15.2) 31.5 (24.4–39.4) 2.7 (0.9–6.5) 21.9p** (15.7–29.2) 1.4 (0.2–4.5) 8.2 (4.5–13.6) 6.8 (3.5–11.9) 1.4 (0.2–4.5) 0.7 (0.0–3.3)
 15–34 52 5.8 (1.5–14.9) 30.8 (19.4–44.2) 1.9 (0.1–9.1) 21.2o* (11.7–33.8) 0 (0.0–7.0) 5.8 (1.5–14.9) 3.8 (0.7–12.1) 0 (0.0–5.6) 0 (0.0–5.6)
 > 34 90 3.3l*, m** (0.9–8.8) 28.9 (20.2–38.9) 3.3 (0.9–8.8) 22.2n** (14.5–31.7) 0 (0.0–3.5) 2.2 (0.4–7.1) 4.4 (1.4–10.4) 0 (0.0–3.3) 1.1 (0.1–5.4)
Total 766 11.0 (8.9–13.3) 28.2 (25.1–31.5) 1.8 (1.0–3.0) 14.9 (12.5–17.5) 0.7 (0.2–1.4) 4.2 (2.9–5.8) 4.0 (2.8–5.6) 0.4 (0.1–1.1) 0.3 (0.0–0.9)
  1. Abbreviation: N number of samples
  2. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01: Statistically significant relationships between two given data for a specific variable were identified with superscript (a to p) letters
  3. 1Insular or poorly accessible settings
  4. 2Urban or peri-urban settings