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Table 4 Single and mixed infections in Ixodes ricinus ticks infesting free-living ungulates

From: Diverse tick-borne microorganisms identified in free-living ungulates in Slovakia

Infection (Pathogens) Tick stage No. of samples (%)a Host
Roe deer Red deer Fallow deer Mouflon Wild boar
Uninfected
  L 7 pools   × ×   
N 49 × × ×   ×
M 3   × ×   
Subtotal 59 (17.1)      
Single infections
Ap L 26 pools × × × ×  
  N 65 × × × ×  
F 23   × × ×  
M 8      
Subtotal 122 (35.5)      
Th L 5 pools × ×    
N 15 × × ×   
F 5 ×   ×   
Subtotal 25 (7.3)      
Rh N 3 (0.9) ×   ×   
Ba N 1 (0.3) ×     
Bval N 1 (0.3)    ×   
Bgar N 1 (0.3)    ×   
Mixed infections
Ap + Th L 12 pools ×   ×   
N 27 × × ×   
F 29   × ×   
M 7   × ×   
Subtotal 75 (21.8)      
Ap + Bv L 1 pool ×     
F 1    ×   
Subtotal 2 (0.6)      
Ap + CNM F 1 (0.3) ×     
Ap + Cb N 4 ×     
F 1     ×  
subtotal 5 (1.4)      
Ap + Rsp L 6 pools ×     
N 1 ×     
M 1 ×     
Subtotal 8 (2.3)      
Ap + Rh N 4    ×   
F 1     ×  
Subtotal 5 (1.4)      
Ap + Rm L 1 pool (0.3)    ×   
Th + Bv L 1 pool (0.3) ×     
Th + CNM N 1 (0.3) ×     
Th + Rh L 2 pools ×   ×   
N 1    ×   
Subtotal 3 (0.9)      
Ap + Th + CNM F 2 ×   ×   
AP + Bv + Rsp L 1 pool ×     
Ap + Th + Rsp L 6 pools ×     
N 2 × ×    
Subtotal 8 (2.3)      
Ap + Th + Rh L 3 pools   ×    
N 1    ×   
F 8    ×   
M 1    ×   
Subtotal 13 (3.8)      
Ap + Th + Rm L 1 pool (0.3)    ×   
Ap + Th + Cb F 1 (0.3)    ×   
Ap + Rsp + Cb L 1 pool (0.3)    ×   
Ap + Th + Bval M 1 (0.3)    ×   
Ap + Th + Rsp + Bval L 1 pool (0.3) ×     
Ap + Th + Rh + Bgar N 1 (0.3) ×     
  1. Abbreviations: ×, presence; Ap, Anaplasma phagocytophilum; Th, Theileria spp.; Bv, Babesia venatorum; CNM, "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis"; Rsp, Rickettsia sp.; Rh, Rickettsia helvetica; Rm, Rickettsia monacensis; Ba, Borrelia afzelii; Bgar, Borrelia garinii; Bval, Borrelia valaisiana; Cb, Coxiella burnetii; L, larva; N, nymph; F, female; M, male
  2. aInfection prevalence (in %), the total number of analysed samples was 344 (74 pools of larvae, 177 nymphs, 72 females, 21 males)