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Table 4 Presence of tick-borne pathogens in ticks feeding on mustelids. DNA lysates from I. ricinus (I. ric) and I. hexagonus (I. hex) feeding on mustelids (n) were tested by qPCR for tick-borne pathogens. Number of pathogen-positive ticks are shown, as well as the number of animals with positive ticks. Infection rate is only shown when more than 10 ticks were tested

From: Role of mustelids in the life-cycle of ixodid ticks and transmission cycles of four tick-borne pathogens

  Larvae (n) Nymphs (n) Adults (n) Animals (n)
I.ric I.hex I.ric I.hex I.ric I.hex I.ric I.hex
Meles meles (n = 38) (n = 0) (n = 2) (n = 1) (n = 27) (n = 11) (n = 25) (n = 5) (n = 37)
B. burgdorferi (s.l.) (%) 0 0 0 (0) 5 (45) 1 (4) 3 2 (5)
B. miyamotoi (%) 0 0 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 0 (0)
N. mikurensis (%) 0 0 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 0 (0)
A. phagocytophilum (%) 0 0 1 (4) 0 (0) 1 (4) 0 2 (5)
Mustela putorius (n = 364) (n = 1) (n = 204) (n = 9) (n = 742) (n = 46) (n = 490) (n = 43) (n = 358)
B. burgdorferi (s.l.) (%) 0 0 (0) 0 6 (1) 4 (9) 11 (2) 4 (9) 15 (4)
B. miyamotoi (%) 0 0 (0) 0 0 (0) 1 (3) 0 (0) 1 (2) 0 (0)
N. mikurensis (%) 0 0 (0) 2 1 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (0)
A. phagocytophilum (%) 0 2 (1) 1 30 (4) 7 (15) 47 (10) 7 (16) 50 (14)
Martes martes (n = 44) (n = 15) (n = 22) (n = 27) (n = 36) (n = 57) (n = 9) (n = 33) (n = 26)
B. burgdorferi (s.l.) (%) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2 (7) 0 (0) 4 (7) 0 6 (18) 0 (0)
B. miyamotoi (%) 1 (15) 0 (0) 1 (4) 0 (0) 3 (5) 0 4 (12) 0 (0)
N. mikurensis (%) 0 (0) 0 (0) 6 (22) 2 (6) 5 (9) 3 8 (24) 3 (12)
A. phagocytophilum (%) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3 (11) 5 (14) 24 (42) 4 15 (45) 5 (19)
Martes foina (n = 39) (n = 1) (n = 16) (n = 3) (n = 31) (n = 44) (n = 9) (n = 22) (n = 24)
B. burgdorferi (s.l.) (%) 0 0 (0) 1 0 (0) 8 (18) 0 5 (23) 0 (0)
B. miyamotoi (%) 0 0 (0) 0 0 (0) 2 (5) 0 1 (5) 0 (0)
N. mikurensis (%) 0 1 (6) 1 2 (6) 5 (11) 1 6 (27) 4 (17)
A. phagocytophilum (%) 0 0 (0) 0 0 (0) 2 (5) 0 2 (9) 0 (0)