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Table 2 Resistance status of Aedes aegypti (USDA and IPL strains) against temephos and potential alternative insecticides. Numbers in bold correspond to a resistance ratio (RR) statistically different from 1. RR between 2 and 10 show a moderate resistance to the insecticide according to WHO criteria

From: Alternative insecticides for larval control of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti in Lao PDR: insecticide resistance and semi-field trial study

Larvicide Strain No. of larvae LC50 (95% CI) (μg/l) LC95 (95% CI) (μg/l) RR50 RR95 χ 2 P Slope ± SE
Bti USDA 1501 14 (12–21) 54 (31–199) 0.2 0.89 2.8 ± 0.6
IPL 1600 11.8 (11.3–12.3) 21 (19–23) 0.8 0.4 5.5 0.24 6.6 ± 0.5
Diflubenzuron USDA 1500 1.7 (1.5–1.8) 5.6 (4.6–7.2) 8.5 0.075 3.1 ± 0.3
IPL 804 1.8 (1.4–2.1) 4.1 (3.8–6.8) 1.1 0.7 20.0 0.0005 4.6 ± 0.3
Pyriproxyfen USDA 1500 0.086 (0.05–0.1) 0.049 (0.03–0.06) 4.4 0.11 1.4 ± 0.3
IPL 699 0.019 (0.017–0.022) 0.098 (0.074–0.12) 0.2 2.0 7.6 0.055 2.4 ± 0.2
Spinosad USDA 1500 14 (12–19) 40 (26–96) 0.4 0.79 3.6 ± 0.3
IPL 1472 69 (62–77) 206 (170–270) 4.9 5.2 3.4 0.18 3.4 ± 0.3
Temephos USDA 1250 2.9 (2.7–3.1) 6.6 (5.8–7.6) 3.7 0.59 4.6 ± 0.3
IPL 2600 6.6 (6.2–6.9) 11.6 (10.5–13.5) 2.3 1.8 5.3 0.07 6.6 ± 0.5
  1. Abbreviations: USDA Susceptible reference strain, IPL Wild strain, LC Lethal concentration, CI Confidence interval, RR Resistance ratio = LC of IPL/LC of USDA strain; SE Standard error