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Table 4 In vitro gas production culture of adult C. daubneyi. Average concentrations of ammonia, VFAs and protozoan counts observed in batch culture vessels for each treatment group after 6 and 24 h in vitro culturing time points, along with 24 h average gas production volume data

From: Polyomic tools for an emerging livestock parasite, the rumen fluke Calicophoron daubneyi; identifying shifts in rumen functionality

Item 6-hour cultures 24-hour cultures
Silage Silage + Fluke Fluke Blank F P SE Silage Silage + Fluke Fluke Blank F P SE
Total gas volume (ml) 7.46 7.05 4.17 4.01 1.62 0.237 1.444
Ammonia (mmol/l) 8.09 8.18 8.56 9.74 0.5 0.691 1.081 16.65 17.23 17.56 18.25 1.68 0.224 0.515
Total VFAs (mmol/l) 82.95a 85.79a 67.55b 66.05b 32.87 <0.001 1.784 103.95a 111.82b 81.92c 77.31c 109.3 <0.001 1.601
Acetate (mmol/l) 53.11 a 54.75 a 44.43 b 43.68 b 72.24 <0.001 0.676 65.23 a 69.19 a 51.07 b 49.12 b 87.01 <0.001 1.077
Proprionate (mmol/l) 14.91 a 15.65 a 11.83 b 11.07 b 17.59 <0.001 0.538 18.44 a 21.21 b 14.90 c 12.76 d 140.77 <0.001 0.316
Butyrate (mmol/l) 10.77 ab 11.11 b 8.35 c 8.41 ac 7.53 0.004 0.541 13.68 a 14.66 a 10.80 b 10.52 b 51.98 <0.001 0.287
Others (mmol/l) 4.17 a 4.27 a 2.95 b 2.89 b 11.81 <0.001 0.219 6.60 a 6.75 a 5.14 b 4.91 b 28.48 <0.001 0.1796
Protozoans (×105/ml) 2.75 2.60 1.97 2.06 2.20 0.165 2.72 × 104 2.54a 2.26ab 1.85ab 1.60b 4.98 0.018 1.86 × 104
  1. Superscripts denote the results of post-hoc testing using Bonferroni measures with multiple comparisons in a one-way ANOVA
  2. Abbreviation: SE standard error of the mean