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Table 1 Outbreak vehicles and Cryptosporidium species identified in cases in England and Wales, 2009–2017

From: Analysis of the Cryptosporidium spp. and gp60 subtypes linked to human outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis in England and Wales, 2009 to 2017

Vehicle or source (median; range)a Setting Number of outbreaks
Total No. genotyped (%) C. parvum C. hominis Both species
All outbreaks (5; 2–1589 cases) 178 131 (74) 69 60 2
Recreational water (5; 2–70 cases) 82 59 (72) 6 52 1
  Swimming pool 72 55 6 48 1
  Hydrotherapy pool 5 1 0 1 0
  Baby swimming pool 4 2 0 2 0
  Paddling pool (outdoor) 1 1 0 1 0
Animal contact (5; 3–41 cases) 74 53 (72) 53 0 0
  Open/petting/educational farm 52 38 38 0 0
  Commercial farm 7 4 4 0 0
  College farm events 8 5 5 0 0
  Student animal handling classes 5 4 4 0 0
  Lambs taken to institutions 2 2 1 0 0
Environmental contact (7; 5–14 cases)      
  Environmental contact 4 3 (75) 3 0 0
Person-to-person spread (5; 3–14 cases)      
  Daycare nursery 4 3 (75) 0 3 0
Drinking water 2 2 (100)    
  Mains water supply (23 cases) 1 1 0 1 0
  Private water supply (12 cases) 1 1 1 0 0
Food 3 3 (100)    
  Ready-to-eat salad (300 cases) 1 1 1 0 0
  Milk (6 cases) 1 1 1 0 0
  Sandwiches containing salad; coffee shop (192 cases) 1 1 1 0 0
Not known (20; 4–1589 cases) 9 8 (89) 3 4 1
  Community 4 3 1 1 1
  Not known 3 3 3 0 0
  School 1 1 1 0 0
  Open prison 1 1 1 0 0
  1. aMedian number of confirmed cases; range, where known