Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 2 Prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH), viral, bacterial, and protozoal infections, Saravane Province, Laos, 2017

From: Associations between soil-transmitted helminthiasis and viral, bacterial, and protozoal enteroinfections: a cross-sectional study in rural Laos

Infections Total (N = 746) Child < 5 years (N = 249) School-aged child (N = 247) Adult (N = 250)
n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
Any STHa 457 (61.3) 133 (53.4) 154 (62.4) 170 (68.0)
 Hookworm 325 (43.6) 81 (32.5) 118 (47.8) 126 (50.4)
 A. lumbricoides 61 (8.2) 23 (9.2) 19 (7.7) 19 (7.6)
 T. trichiura 119 (16.0) 40 (16.1) 46 (18.6) 33 (13.2)
 S. stercoralis 154 (20.6) 38 (15.3) 45 (18.2) 71 (28.4)
Any virusb 248 (33.2) 90 (36.1) 78 (31.6) 80 (32.0)
 Astrovirus 18 (2.4) 8 (3.2) 6 (2.4) 4 (2.0)
 Adenovirus 6 (0.8) 0 (0.0) 4 (1.6) 2 (0.8)
 Norovirus GI 8 (1.2) 1 (0.4) 4 (1.6) 3 (1.2)
 Norovirus GII 55 (7.4) 21 (8.4) 15 (6.1) 19 (7.6)
 Rotavirus 180 (24.1) 61 (24.5) 58 (23.5) 61 (24.4)
 Sapovirus 11 (1.5) 8 (3.2) 3 (1.2) 0 (0)
Any bacteriac 640 (86.8) 216 (86.8) 206 (83.4) 218 (87.2)
 Aeromonas spp. 224 (30.0) 54 (21.7) 70 (28.3) 100 (40.0)
 Clostridium difficile 8 (1.1) 3 (1.2) 3 (1.2) 2 (0.8)
 Campylobacter jejuni 163 (21.9) 69 (27.7) 55 (22.3) 39 (15.6)
 EAEC 353 (47.3) 113 (45.4) 109 (44.1) 131 (52.4)
 EHEC 91 (12.2) 21 (8.4) 29 (11.7) 41 (16.4)
 EPEC 262 (35.1) 94 (37.8) 91 (36.8) 77 (30.8)
 Typical 60 (8.1) 15 (6.0) 20 (8.1) 25 (10.0)
 Atypical 202 (27.1) 79 (31.7) 71 (28.7) 52 (20.8)
 ETEC 278 (37.3) 95 (38.2) 70 (28.3) 113 (45.2)
 LT-ETEC 78 (10.5) 35 (14.1) 13 (5.3) 30 (12.0)
 ST-ETEC 200 (26.8) 60 (24.1) 57 (23.1) 83 (33.2)
 Shigella spp./EIEC 117 (15.7) 37 (14.9) 36 (14.6) 44 (17.6)
 Salmonella enterica 37 (5.0) 8 (3.2) 9 (3.6) 20 (8.0)
Any protozoad 543 (72.8) 203 (81.5) 188 (76.1) 152 (60.8)
 Cryptosporidium spp. 105 (14.1) 41 (16.5) 34 (13.8) 30 (12.0)
 Cryptosporidium hominus 1 (0.1) 0 (0) 1 (0.4) 0 (0)
 Cryptosporidium parvum 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
 Entamoeba histolytica 1 (0.1) 1 (0.4) 0 (0) 0 (0)
 Giardia intestinalis 514 (68.9) 195 (78.3) 179 (72.5) 140 (56.0)
Mean (standard deviation) number of microparasites 3.3 (1.7) 3.3 (1.5) 3.1 (1.7) 3.3 (1.8)
  1. aSoil-transmitted helminth (STH) includes one or more of the following helminths: hookworm (N. americanus and/or A. duodenale), A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, or S. stercoralis
  2. bVirus includes one or more of the following pathogens: astrovirus, adenovirus, norovirus GI, norovirus GII, rotavirus, or sapovirus
  3. cBacteria includes one or more of the following pathogens: Aeromonas, C. difficile, C. jejuni, EAEC, EHEC, EPEC (typical or atypical), LT- or ST-ETEC, Shigella spp./Enteroinvasive E. coli, or Salmonella
  4. dProtozoa includes one or more of the following pathogens: non-hominus and non-parvum Cryptosporidium spp., C. hominus, C. parvum, E. histolytica, and G. intestinalis
  5. All data come from quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis