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Fig. 1 | Parasites & Vectors

Fig. 1

From: Development and application of a tri-allelic PCR assay for screening Vgsc-L1014F kdr mutations associated with pyrethroid and organochlorine resistance in the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus

Fig. 1

Allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) for genotyping tri-allelic Vgsc-L1014F variation in C. quinquefasciatus. a Schematic representation of the ETAS-PCR/Vgsc-1014 assay design with primer locations and predicted size of PCR products. Arrows indicate the location of PCR primers; black arrows indicate the universal reverse primer and red, blue and yellow arrows indicate each allele-specific primer (codons TTT, TTA and TTC, respectively). Bases highlighted in grey at the 3′-ends of each specific primer are deliberate mismatches. Blue-asterisks represent the restriction-site of the Eco32I enzyme. Full-length primer sequences are reported in Table 1. b An example of the ETAS-PCR/Vgsc-1014 gel electrophoresis. Lane 1: 100 bp DNA ladder; Lanes 2–4: homozygote for each codon: TTT, TTA and TTC, respectively; Lanes 5–6: heterozygous individuals TTT/TTA, TTA/TTC and TTT/TTC, respectively

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