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Table 4 Univariate (unadjusted OR) and multivariate (adjusted OR) logistic regression to identify socio-economic variables for awareness of triatomine bugs as vectors of Chagas disease

From: Cultural perception of triatomine bugs and Chagas disease in Bolivia: a cross-sectional field study

Demographic background % who connected Unadjusted Adjusted
Bugs with Chagas OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Ayoreo participants
 Age
  ≤ 40* 34.8 Reference   Reference  
  41–60 65.0 3.48 1.02–12.89 3.84 1.01–16.58
  61–80 42.9 1.41 0.23–8.02 1.50 0.15–14.82
   P = 0.14   P = 0.15  
 Gender
  Female 29.2 Reference   Reference  
  Male 65.4 4.59 1.44–16.00 4.79 1.40–18.67
   P = 0.012   P = 0.016  
 Education
  No formal education 40.0 Reference   Reference  
  Basic or higher 50.0 1.50 0.37–6.64 1.30 0.20–9.44
   P = 0.57   P = 0.78  
Guaraní participants
 Age
  10–20 85.7 1.12 0.16–22.56 1.51 0.18–34.53
  21–40 82.8 0.89 0.27–3.24 0.88 0.24–3.41
  > 40a 84.3 Reference   Reference  
   P = 0.97   P = 0.92  
 Gender
  Female 83.6 Reference   Reference  
  Male 84.6 1.08 0.32–4.27 1.07 0.28–4.68
   P = 0.91   P = 0.92  
 Education
  No formal education 80.0 Reference   Reference  
  Basic 85.1 1.43 0.07–10.88 1.39 0.07–10.61
  Intermediate and highera 75.0 0.75 0.03–10.78 0.61 0.02–10.13
   P = 0.74   P = 0.68  
Chiquitano participants
 Age
  10–20 44.4 0.03 0.00–0.22 0.02 0.00–0.16
  21–40 88.9 0.27 0.01–1.77 0.22 0.01–1.67
  41–60 88.6 0.26 0.01–1.87 0.30 0.01–2.31
  61–80 96.8 Reference   Reference  
   P = 0.0071   P = 0.1  
 Gender
  Female 80.6 Reference   Reference  
  Male 94.8 4.40 1.31–20.13 5.05 1.25–29.97
   P = 0.028   P = 0.03954  
 Education
  Basic 83.9 Reference   Reference  
  Intermediate and highera 91.4 2.04 0.68–6.92 3.64 0.96–16.50
   P = 0.22   P = 0.069  
Quechua participants
 Age
  10–20 50.0 Reference   Reference  
  21–40 70.6 2.4 0.62–9.55 2.76 0.65–12.27
  41–60 89.5 8.5 1.51–70.24 10.64 1.73–95.18
  61–80 71.4 2.5 0.37–22.74 3.07 0.41–30.58
   P = 0.16   P = 0.13  
 Gender      
  Female 64.9 Reference   Reference  
  Male 80.0 2.17 0.76–6.60 1.82 0.54–6.36
   P = 0.16   P = 0.33  
 Education
  No formal education 66.7 Reference   Reference  
  Basic 69.8 1.16 0.22–4.98 1.19 0.20–6.41
  Intermediate or higher 90.0 4.5 0.45–103.84 5.69 0.46–151.45
   P = 0.44   P = 0.37  
La Paz participants
 Age
  10–20 15.4 0.05 0.00–0.32 0.02 0.00–0.22
  21–40 40.0 0.17 0.02–0.76 0.14 0.01–1.00
  41–60 61.9 0.41 0.05–2.15 1.65 0.14–19.65
  61–80 80.0 Reference   Reference  
   P = 0.014   P = 0.0043  
 Gender
  Female 34.8 Reference   Reference  
  Male 58.1 2.60 1.12–6.25 2.51 0.80–8.45
   P = 0.029   P = 0.12  
 Education
  Basic 19.2 0.10 0.03–0.34 0.05 0.01–0.25
  Intermediate 47.2 0.38 0.13–1.06 1.62 0.41–6.92
  Advanced 70.4 Reference   Reference  
   P = 0.002   P = 0.0014  
Santa Cruz participants
 Age
  10–20 63.6 0.22 0.04–1.21 0.14 0.01–1.03
  21–40 45.8 0.11 0.02–0.40 0.06 0.01–0.30
  > 40a 88.9 Reference   Reference  
   P = 0.0096   P = 0.009  
 Gender
  Female 62.1 Reference   Reference  
  Male 72.7 1.63 0.56–4.86 0.88 0.23–3.25
   P = 0.372   P = 0.85  
 Education
  Basic 38.5 0.17 0.03–0.75 0.09 0.01–0.63
  Intermediate 73.3 0.73 0.17–2.79 0.88 0.16–4.70
  Advanced 78.9 Reference   Reference  
   P = 0.05   P = 0.035  
  1. aLevels grouped together because of small sample size
  2. Abbreviations: OR: odds ratio, 95% CI: 95% confidence interval