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Table 1 Summary of a list of different transgenic parasites and gene constructs with corresponding functions

From: Investigating immune responses to parasites using transgenesis

Genus Species Gene construct/transgenic parasite Study performed or Function Reference
Plasmodium P. berghei P. berghei PbGAG/ HIV-1 Gag Expression of HIV-1 Gag in the transgenic blood stage parasites and demonstrating its role in the protection against vaccinia virus-gag and malarial parasites [64]
P. berghei-Fluspo Examination of the motility and movement of sporozoites in the salivary gland of mosquito during host infection [65, 66]
P. berghei-GFP-luciferase Tracking of parasite sequestration during erythrocyte development and identifying the role of CD36 and Tregs in ECM development and immunity [34, 67]
P. berghei expressing full-length PvCSP (VK247) The P. berghei expressing full-length PvCSP (VK247) was generated and examined its applicability to CSP based vaccine trial by examining its biological characteristics in mosquitoes and mice [68]
P. falciparum P. berghei MSP-119 The transfected parasite line and parental parasites that differ only in MSP-119 were compared and antibodies specific for this domain are a major component of the inhibitory response in P. falciparum immune humans and P. chabaudi immune mice [69]
P. yoelii P. yoelii-GFPCON (EF1α-promoter) Quantification, characterization, and imaging of malaria parasites in the liver in vivo [70]
P. yoelii p52–/p36– Genetic manipulation of p52/p36 gene and its role in the development of infection and protective immunity [71]
P. vivax P. falciparum and P. berghei lines expressing PvDHFR-TS Expression of Pv DHFR-TS and performing anti-malarial drug screening assay and drug sensitivity in both transgenic and non-transgenic parasite models [72]
P. knowlesi P. knowlesi expressing bioactive host gamma interferon Transgenic P. knowlesi parasite was generated to express rhIFNg and using live attenuated whole organism vaccine, how parasite-host interactions was evaluated [73]
Trypanosoma T. cruzi ADC transgenic T. cruzi Modulation of oat arginine decarboxylase gene expression and genome organization in transgenic T. cruzi epimastigotes [74]
Leishmania L. major OVA transgenic L. major Expression of truncated OVA and in vivo recognition of the parasites by OVA-specific T cells [23, 24]
L. major L. major MPK10 Using the transgenic approach, the regulation of MAP Kinase MPK10 reveals an auto-inhibitory mechanism, which is important for the parasite stage specific regulation and parasite viability [75]
L. chagasi rRNA promoter regions Characterization of the gene after transfected into parasite and analysing its function in promoting the expression of proteins from Leishmania plasmid [76]
L. tarentolae Human tissue-type plasminogen activator expression Transfection of L. tarentolae with expression vector containing tPA gene and its functional analysis. The expression cassette including tPA gene integrated in Leishmania 18S rRNA genes through homologous recombination and transfected Leishmania produce biologically active tPA [77]
L. denovoni LdCen−/− or Ldp27−/− parasites Role of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-17 in Leishmania pathogenesis and in protective immunity by Leishmania vaccines [78]
L. mexicana L. mexicana LPG1−/− Transgenic episomal expression of a reporter antigen, E. coli β-galactosidase (β-gal), to study the mechanisms that result in the cross-presentation of exogenous antigens to the Class I Pathway for the stimulation of CD8+ T cells [79]
Schistosoma S. mansoni Transfection of RNAi cloned with pGIPZ expression vector into parasite egg Omega-1 knock-down in S. mansoni eggs by lentivirus transduction reduces granuloma size in vivo [8]
Toxoplasma T. gondii Mitochondrial association factor 1 (MAF1). Exogenous expression of MAF1 to show that it binds host mitochondria and thus MAF1 is the parasite protein directly responsible for HMA. The association with host mitochondria may represent a novel means by which Toxoplasma tachyzoites manipulate the host [80]
T. gondii T. gondii -YFP Yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) was transfected in T. gondii RH strain in the cytoplasm. The transgenic protein was injected to chickens SC and provide protection against E. tenella YFP infection. T. gondii YFP induced low levels of antibodies to YFP in chickens, suggesting that YFP specific cellular immune response was probably responsible for the protective immunity against E. tenella YFP infection [81]
T. gondii TCR/Kb/OVA257–264 Using transgenic β 2M(−I−) mice, several peptides with the ability to induce positive selection were identified [82]
T. gondii TCR/H-2b/OVA323–339 Generation of MHC class II-restricted, OVA-specific αβ TCR transgenic mice and analysing the recognition of OVA323–339 by mature OT-II T cells [83]
T. gondii I-Ab-EGFP knock-in (H–2b) The mechanisms how the class II molecule transport in live in live APCs by replacing the mouse MHC class II gene with a version that codes for a class II molecule tagged with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) [84]
T. gondii GRA6-derived HF10 epitope transgenic T. gondi Location of the CD8+ T cell epitope within the antigenic precursor determines immunogenicity and protection against the T. gondii parasite [85]
Eimeria E. tenella E. tenella-CjaA with mCitrine reporter Comparison of the result in the protective immunity of the vaccination of specific pathogen free chickens by single or multiple oral inoculation of E. tenella-CjaA oocysts with unvaccinated and wild-type E. tenella vaccinated controls [86]
E. mitis Sporozoites of E. mitis transfected with enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) After expression of EYFP in transgenic E. mitis, the peripheral location of the nuclei of mature microgametocytes in microgametogenesis revealed that microgametes were directly differentiated along with the migrating of nuclei to peripheral location [87]