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Table 3 Baseline characteristics of the study population and its association with P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria cases

From: Higher risk of malaria transmission outdoors than indoors by Nyssorhynchus darlingi in riverine communities in the Peruvian Amazon

CharacteristicsP. vivaxP. falciparum
No. positive (%)
(n = 42)
No. negative (%)
(n = 808)
P-valueNo. positive (%)
(n = 35)
No. negative (%)
(n = 878)
P-value
Study area  0.001**  0.008**
 Salvador20 (47.6)282 (34.9) 11 (61.1)291 (35.0) 
 Urco Miraño3 (7.1)246 (30.4) 0 (0.0)249 (29.9) 
 Libertad18 (42.9)227 (28.1) 6 (33.3)239 (28.7) 
 Visto Bueno1 (2.4)53 (6.6) 1 (5.6)53 (6.4) 
Sex  0.636  0.815
 Female22 (52.4)388 (48.0) 8 (44.4)402 (48.3) 
 Male20 (47.6)420 (52.0) 10 (55.6)430 (51.7) 
Age group (years)  0.781  0.456
 <1015 (35.7)259 (32.0) 4 (22.2)270 (32.5) 
 10–29.911 (26.2)255 (31.6) 8 (44.4)258 (31.0) 
 ≥3016 (38.1)294 (36.4) 6 (33.3)304 (36.5) 
Education  0.343  0.682
 None11 (26.2)223 (27.6) 4 (22.2)230 (27.6) 
 Primary school27 (64.3)440 (54.5) 12 (66.7)455 (54.7) 
 Secondary school or higher4 (9.5)145 (17.9) 2 (11.1)147 (17.7) 
Occupation (>18 years-old)  0.003**  0.254
 Forest related5 (11.9)260 (32.2) 9 (50.0)256 (30.7) 
 Housewife/student32 (76.2)409 (50.6) 7 (38.9)434 (52.2) 
 Others5 (11.9)139 (17.2) 2 (11.1)142 (17.1) 
Dwelling wall materiala  1.000  0.034**
 Wood35 (92.1)630 (92.4) 13 (76.5)652 (92.7) 
 Pona and other related3 (7.9)52 (7.6) 4 (23..5)51 (7.3) 
Dwelling roof material  0.745  0.321
 Tin (calamina)14 (33.3)293 (36.3) 4 (22.2)303 (36.4) 
 Palm leaves28 (66.7)515 (63.7) 14 (77.8)529 (63.6) 
Electricity  0.103*  0.276
 Yes16 (38.1)207 (25.6) 11 (61.1)616 (74.0) 
 No26 (61.9)601 (74.4) 7 (38.9)216 (26.0) 
Impregnated bednets  0.381  0.336
 Yes38 (90.5)680 (84.2) 17 (94.4)701 (84.3) 
 No4 (9.5)128 (15.8) 1 (5.6)131 (15.7) 
  1. *P < 0.2, **P < 0.05; Fisher’s exact test
  2. aFactor with missing values