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Table 1 Results of the multi-level logistic regression model, including village as random effect

From: Epidemiological factors associated with human cystic echinococcosis: a semi-structured questionnaire from a large population-based ultrasound cross-sectional study in eastern Europe and Turkey

VariableAdjusted OR95% CIaP-valuea
Sex
 Female1  
 Male0.980.64–1.50.930
Ageb1.050.89–1.230.582
Lived in areas with high density of dogs and sheep in the past 20 years
 No1  
 Yes1.940.84–4.470.118
Main occupation in the past 20 years*
 Non-agricultural activities or office/service employee1  
 Housewife3.111.51–6.410.002
 Farmer/livestock breeder/other agricultural/veterinary activities2.490.93–6.660.068
 Students and children < 5 years of age1.310.61–2.850.487
 Retired2.881.09–7.650.033
 Unemployed2.090.51–8.580.309
Agricultural activities in the past 20 years
 No1  
 Yes1.470.64–3.360.366
Education
 None1  
 Primary1.050.55–2.000.893
 Secondary/high school1.150.60–2.180.678
 University/postgraduate0.110.01–0.880.038
Knowledge of human CE existence
 No1  
 Yes1.780.69–4.580.235
Known presence of relatives with CE
 No1  
 Yes4.181.77–9.880.001
Raw viscera given to dogs
 No1  
 Yes1.500.95–2.380.080
Drink commercial water*
 No1  
 Yes0.650.40–1.040.071
  1. aAccounting for clustering at village level
  2. bAdjusted OR per linear 10-years increase in age
  3. * Statistically significant interaction with country (Wald test, P < 0.05)