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Table 3 Chronological arrangement of reports of laboratory confirmed natural infections of NHPs with CHIKV in countries around the world

From: Sylvatic cycles of arboviruses in non-human primates

Year Reference Country Primate speciesa Diagnostic test Prevalence (%)
1962 McIntosh et al. (1964) [22] Zimbabweb Chacma baboon (Papio ursinis) HAI and VI 100 (9/9)
1962 McIntosh et al. (1964) [22] Zimbabweb African green monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) HAI and VI 100 (4/4)
1965? Halstead & Udomsakdi, (1966) [73] Thailand Unspecified HAI and SN Seropositive, numbers not stated
1963–1967 Marchette et al. (1978) [74] Thailand Macaca fascicularis HAI and PRNT 1.5 (6/393)
1963–1967 Marchette et al. (1978) [74] Thailand Macaca nemestrina HAI and PRNT 2.3 (3/132)
1963–1967 Marchette et al. (1978) [74] Thailand Presbytis melalophos HAI and PRNT 16.7 (1/6)
1963–1967 Marchette et al. (1978) [74] Thailand Presbytis obscura HAI and PRNT 14.6 (6/41)
1964–1969 McIntosh (1970) [69] South Africa (Transvaal) Chacma baboon (Papio ursinis) HAI and SN 11.9 (9/76)
1964–1969 McIntosh (1970) [69] South Africa (Natal) African green monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) HAI and SN 25.1 (75/298)
1964–1969 McIntosh (1970) [69] Zimbabweb Chacma baboon (Papio ursinis) HAI and SN 100 (4/4)
1969 McCrae et al. (1971) [70] Uganda Red-tailed monkey (Cercopithecus ascanius schmidti) HAI 83.3 (25/30)
1972 Diallo et al. (1999) [30] Senegal African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) VI 2/not stated
1975 Diallo et al. (1999) [30] Senegal Baboon (Papio papio) VI 1/not stated
1983 Diallo et al. (1999) [30] Senegal Patas monkey (Erythrocebus patas) VI 1/not stated
1985–2000 Eastwood et al. (2017) [25] Kenya Olive baboon (Papio anubis) PRNT 13.1 (33/252)c
1985–2000 Eastwood et al. (2017) [25] Kenya Vervet monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops) PRNT 13.1 (33/252)c
1985–2000 Eastwood et al. (2017) [25] Kenya Blue monkey (Cercopithecus mitis) PRNT 13.1 (33/252)c
1996 Diallo et al. (1999) [30] Senegal Bush baby (Galago senegalensis) VI 1/not stated
1996 Diallo et al. (1999) [30] Senegal African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) VI 1/not stated
1998-2006 Kading et al. (2013) [26] Gabon Mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx) PRNT 20.0 (5/25)
2006 Vourcʼh et al. (2014) [72] Indian Ocean Islands (Réunion, Mayotte, Mauritius) Brown lemur (Eulemur fulvus) ELISA and PRNT 3.8 (2/52)
2006 Vourcʼh et al. (2014) [72] Indian Ocean Islands (Réunion, Mayotte, Mauritius) Crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis) ELISA and PRNT 1.5 (2/134)
2007–2008 Apandi et al. (2009) [75] Malaysia Long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) PCR 3.8 (4/105)
2008–2009 Nakgoi et al. (2014) [55] Thailand Northern pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina leonine) PRNT 10.5 (4/38)
2009–2010 Sam et al. (2015) [76] Malaysia Long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) PRNT 0.7 (1/146)
2009–2010 Sow et al. (2018) [71] Senegal Guinea baboon (Papio papio) PRNT 82.0 (96/117)
2009–2010 Sow et al. (2018) [71] Senegal African green monkey (Chlorocebus sabaeus) PRNT 75.8 (25/33)
2009–2010 Sow et al. (2018) [71] Senegal Patas monkey (Erythrocebus patas) PRNT 7.0 (5/71)
2010–2012 Althouse et al. (2018) [10] Senegal Guinea baboon (Papio papio) PRNT 71.8 (479/667) (n = 399)c
2010–2012 Althouse et al. (2018) [10] Senegal African green monkey (Chlorocebus sabaeus) PRNT 71.8 (479/667) (n = 198)c
2010–2012 Althouse et al. (2018) [10] Senegal Patas monkey (Erythrocebus patas) PRNT 71.8 (479/667) (n = 70)c
2013 Moreiro-Soto et al. (2018) [77] Brazil White-cheeked spider monkey (Ateles marginatus) PRNT 33.3 (1/3)
2013 Moreiro-Soto et al. (2018) [77] Brazil Common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) PRNT 12.5 (1/8)
2013 Moreiro-Soto et al. (2018) [77] Brazil Capuchin monkey (Sapajus sp.) PRNT 5.4 (2/37)
2013 Moreiro-Soto et al. (2018) [77] Brazil Buff-headed capuchin (Sapajus xanthosternos) PRNT 18.2 (2/11)
2014 Eastwood et al. (2017) [25] Kenya Olive baboon (Papio anubis) PRNT 27.8 (5/18)
2014 Eastwood et al. (2017) [25] Kenya Red-tailed monkey (Cercopithecus ascanius) PRNT 14.3 (1/7)
2014 Eastwood et al. (2017) [25] Kenya Blue monkey (Cercopithecus mitis) PRNT 37.5 (3/8)
2014 Moreiro-Soto et al. (2018) [77] Brazil Blonde capuchin (Sapajus flavius) PRNT 4.8 (1/21)
2016 Moreiro-Soto et al. (2018) [77] Brazil Crested capuchin (Sapajus robustus) PRNT 50.0 (1/2)
2016 Moreiro-Soto et al. (2018) [77] Brazil Capuchin monkey (Sapajus sp.) PRNT 14.3 (3/21)
  1. aAs listed by the authors
  2. bAs Southern Rhodesia
  3. cDistribution of results between NHP species not reported
  4. Abbreviations: ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HAI, haemagglutination inhibition; PRNT, plaque reduction neutralisation testing; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; SN, serum neutralization; VI, viral isolation