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Table 4 Chronological arrangement of reports of laboratory confirmed natural infection of NHPs with ZIKV in countries around the world

From: Sylvatic cycles of arboviruses in non-human primates

Year Reference Country Primate speciesa Diagnostic test Prevalence (%)
1947 Dick et al. (1952) [21] Uganda Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) VI 100 (1/1)
1962–1971 Rudnick (1986) [23] Malaysia Pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) HAI 1.2 (2/163)
1962–1971 Rudnick (1986) [23] Malaysia Long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) HAI 1.8 (4/225)
1969–1970 McCrae & Kirya (1982) [81] Uganda Red-tailed monkey (Cercopithecus ascanius schmidti) HAI and SN 38.1 (54/142) and 52.1 (74/142)
1969–1970 McCrae & Kirya (1982) [81] Uganda Colobus (Colobus abyssinicus uellensis) HAI and SN 45.4 (5/11) and 54.5 (6/11)
1969–1970 McCrae & Kirya (1982) [81] Uganda Mangabey (Cercocebus albigena johnstoni) HAI and SN 50.0 (2/4) and 75 (3/4)
1969–1971 Monath & Kemp (1973) [45] Nigeria African green monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops) HAI and SN 55.5 (5/9) and 66.6 (6/9)
1969–1971 Monath & Kemp (1973) [45] Nigeria Mona monkey (Cercopithecus mona) HAI and SN 36.1 (13/36) and 41.7 (15/36)
1969–1971 Monath & Kemp (1973) [45] Nigeria Western putty-nosed monkey (Cercopithecus nictitans martini) HAI and SN 50.0 (2/4) and 25.0 (1/4)
1969–1971 Monath & Kemp (1973) [45] Nigeria Red-capped mangabey (Cercopithecus torquatus) HAI and SN 100 (5/5) and 80.0 (4/5)
1969–1971 Monath & Kemp (1973) [45] Nigeria Olive baboon (Papio anubis choras) HAI and SN 100 (2/2) and 50.0 (1/2)
1969–1971 Monath & Kemp (1973) [45] Nigeria Wadi monkey (Erythrocebus patas) HAI and SN 11.9 (8/67) and 5.9 (4/67)
1979–1980 Althouse et al. (2015) [8] Senegal Vervet monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops) VI and IFA 100 (1/1) and 100 (1/1)
1980 Althouse et al. (2015) [8] Senegal Patas monkey (Erythrocebus patas) VI and IFA 100 (1/1) and 100 (1/1)
1985, 1986 Buechler et al. (2016) [84] Gambia Vervet monkey (Chlorocebus sp.) ELISA 16.0 (4/25)
1996–1998 Kilbourn et al. (2003) [91] Malaysia Western Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus) ELISA and/or IFA 8.4 (6/71)
1996–1997 Wolfe et al. (2001) [58] Malaysia Western Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus) PRNT 2.8 (2/71)
2010–2014 Buechler et al. (2016) [84] Tanzania Yellow baboon (Papio sp.) ELISA 4.9 (2/41)
2012 Moreiro-Soto et al. (2018) [77] Brazil Capuchin (Sapajus sp.) PRNT 4.8 (1/21)
2012 Moreiro-Soto et al. (2018) [77] Brazil Marmoset (Callithrix penicillata) PRNT 100 (1/1)
2013 Moreiro-Soto et al. (2018) [77] Brazil Red-handed howler monkey (Alouatta belzebul) PRNT 100 (1/1)
2014 Moreiro-Soto et al. (2018) [77] Brazil Capuchin (Sapajus flavius) PRNT 4.8 (1/21)
2014 Moreiro-Soto et al. (2018) [77] Brazil Red-handed howler monkey (Alouatta belzebul) PRNT 100 (1/1)
2016 Favoretto et al. (2016) [92] Brazil Capuchin (Sapajus libidinosus) PCR 33.3 (3/9)
2016 Favoretto et al. (2016) [92] Brazil Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) PCR 26.7 (4/15)
2017 Terzian et al. (2018) [93] Brazil Capuchin (Sapajus libidinosus) PCR 38.2 (31/81)
2017 Terzian et al. (2018) [93] Brazil Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) PCR 100 (1/1)
2017 Moreiro-Soto et al. (2018) [77] Brazil Red-handed howler monkey (Alouatta belzebul) PRNT 33.3 (1/3)
  1. aAs listed by the authors
  2. Abbreviations: ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HAI, haemagglutination inhibition; IFA, immunofluorescence antibody test; PRNT, plaque reduction neutralisation testing; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; SN, serum neutralization; VI, viral isolation