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Table 2 Summary of total and median tested and O. tsutsugamushi positive for the three most frequently reported Leptotrombidium chigger species, subdivided into laboratory test categories

From: Scrub typhus ecology: a systematic review of Orientia in vectors and hosts

Laboratory method Vector species name Total no. tested Median no. tested Range Total no. positive Median no. positive/study site Median positive (%)
Combination culture and molecular
  L. deliense 0a 0 0 0 0 0
 Pools L. scutellare 10b 10 10 8 4 40.0
  L. pallidum ?b ? ? 3 3
Combination culture and serology
  L. deliense ?b ? ? 3 3
 Pools L. deliense ?b ? ? 2 2
  L. scutellare 10 10 10 4 4 40.0
 Pools L. scutellare 15 4 1–10 5 2.5 63.0
  L. pallidum 1811b 66 23–734 75 12 18.0
 Pools L. pallidum 115b 15 1–52 68 5 33.0
Combination culture +/− microscopy
  L. deliense 7b 4 1–6 1 1 25.0
 Pools L. deliense 398b 7 1–131 193 3 43.0
 Pools L. scutellare 183b 24 11–148 5 1 4.2
  L. pallidum 17b 8.5 1–16 8 4 47.0
 Pools L. pallidum 36b 3 1–30 13 1 33.0
Serology
  L. deliense 1874 314 285–1275 51 4 13.0
 Pools L. deliense 665 333 5–660 18 9 27.0
  L. scutellare 1242 131 1–1110 6 3 2.3
  L. pallidum 1900 42 12–1263 202 10 24.0
 Pools L. pallidum ?b ? 7–? 73 4
Molecular
  L. deliense 44 22 15–29 3 1.5 6.8
 Pools L. deliense 515 6 1–315 124 3 50.0
  L. scutellare 3053 54 11–1907 57 5 9.3
 Pools L. scutellare 127b 4 1–105 35 1 25.0
  L. pallidum 1357 38 1–474 57 7 18.0
 Pools L. pallidum 4 2 1–3 0 0 0
Combined molecular and serology
 Pools L. deliense 42 42 42 25 25 60.0
  L. scutellare 2050 119 6–579 22 2 1.7
  L. pallidum 2735 80 1–1420 31 3 3.8
  1. aOne study reported 75% O. tsutsugamushi infection rate in pools made up of 20,700 L. deliense, but the number of pools tested and number positive were not reported [258]
  2. bIncludes studies where number of individuals/pools tested was not given (i.e. no denominator)
  3. Key: +/−, with or without; ? unknown