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Table 2 Liver fluke treatment variables and categories derived from survey, percentage of answers and negative and positive infection ratios

From: Liver fluke in Irish sheep: prevalence and associations with management practices and co-infection with rumen fluke

Question Category Answers % (n) Negative % (n) Positive % (n)
Illness or death due to liver fluke in last 5 years Yes, multiple occasions 4.7 (12) 0.4 (1) 4.4 (11)
Yes, rarely 34.0 (86) 15.4 (39) 18.6 (47)
No 51.8 (131) 31.6 (80) 20.2 (51)
Do not know 9.5 (24) 4.7 (12) 4.7 (12)
Liver fluke dosing regime Do not dose 4.8 (12) 3.6 (9) 1.2 (3)
Every month to six weeks in autumn 20.7 (52) 9.2 (23) 11.6 (29)
Once over the autumn winter period 17.9 (45) 10.4 (26) 7.8 (19)
Twice over the autumn winter period 49.4 (18) 25.1 (63) 24.3 (61)
Other 7.2 (18) 4.0 (10) 3.2 (8)
Flukicides most commonly used No flukicides used 3.2 (8) 2.4 (6) 0.8 (2)
One adulticide 2.8 (7) 2.0 (5) 0.8 (2)
Two adulticides 2.0 (5) 0.8 (2) 1.2 (3)
One active against more than one stage 36.8 (91) 19.0 (47) 17.8 (44)
More than one active against more than one stage 55.1 (136) 27.1 (67) 27.9 (69)
Flukicides used between September 2014 and April 2015 No flukicides used 0.9 (2) 0.4 (1) 0.4 (1)
One maturicide 8.1 (18) 5.4 (12) 2.7 (6)
Two maturicides 2.7 (6) 1.8 (4) 0.9 (2)
One active against more than one stage 51.6 (115) 25.1 (56) 26.5 (59)
More than one active against more than one stage 36.8 (82) 17.9 (40) 18.8 (42)
Flukicides frequency used between September 2014 and April 2015 0 times 0.4 (1) 0 (0) 1.0 (0.4)
1 time 19.1 (44) 13.0 (30) 6.1 (14)
2 times 39.8 (92) 21.7 (50) 18.2 (42)
3 times 26.4 (61) 11.7 (27) 14.7 (34)
4 times 13.4 (31) 4.8 (11) 8.7 (20)
5 times 0.9 (2) 0 (0) 0.9 (2)
Administration of flukicides to animals separated in groups No 93.0 (214) 48.3 (111) 44.8 (103)
Yes 7.0 (16) 3.0 (7) 4.0 (9)
Product rotation Same product every year 19.6 (48) 10.2 (25) 9.4 (23)
Product rotation every year or every second year 62.0 (152) 29.8 (73) 32.2 (79)
Use of any available product from veterinarian or licenced merchant 6.1 (15) 3.7 (9) 2.5 (6)
Use of the cheapest or best deal product 3.7 (9) 2.0 (5) 1.6 (4)
Use of product recommended by veterinarian 4.1 (10) 2.5 (6) 1.6 (4)
No dosing 4.5 (11) 3.3 (8) 1.2 (3)
Information received from slaughter plant on liver fluke status Yes, majority of animals with liver fluke evidence 1.7 (4) 0.4 (1) 1.3 (3)
Yes, minority of animals with liver fluke evidence 25.8 (60) 12.0 (28) 13.7 (32)
Never received liver fluke information from slaughter plants 72.5 (169) 38.6 (90) 33.9 (79)