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Table 5 Multivariable linear regression of F. hepatica eggs per gram (dependent variable) across breed, treatment counts before sampling, flock size, lambing period, sheep grazing land, winter soil and illness or death due to F. hepatica (independent variables)

From: Liver fluke in Irish sheep: prevalence and associations with management practices and co-infection with rumen fluke

Independent variable Coefficient 95% CI P-value Model (P-value)
Co-infection (observed vs not-observed) 2.90 1.44–4.35 < 0.001  
Breed     Co-infection vs breed vs treat count before sampling vs flock size vs lambing period vs grazing land type vs winter soil vs illness or death due to liver fluke (P = 0.0001)
Charollais vs mountain breed 7.70 3.48–11.93 < 0.001
Charollais vs Suffolk 4.99 1.43–8.56 0.006
Charollais vs Texal 5.13 1.47–8.79 0.006
Charollais vs Cheviot 6.34 1.67–11.01 0.008
Charollais vs Leicester 6.28 1.36–11.21 0.013
Charollais vs Galway 12.79 1.93–23.64 0.021
Charollais vs other breeds 4.79 0.71–8.87 0.022
Mountain breed vs Suffolk − 2.72 − 5.52–0.09 0.057*
Mountain breed vs other breeds − 3.17 − 6.63–0.29 0.073*
Treatment frequency before sampling    
4 treatments vs 1 3.38 0.43–6.34 0.025
4 treatments vs 2 3.65 1.18–6.12 0.004
4 treatments vs 3 3.33 0.76–5.89 0.011
Lambing period    
March-April (mid-late) vs February-March (mid) 1.97 0.31–3.65 0.021
Sheep grazing land    
Lowland and mountain vs lowland 2.54 0.60–4.49 0.011
Illness or death due to liver fluke in last 5 years    
No vs several No vs rarely − 3.82 − 1.38 − 7.80–0.17 − 2.89– − 0.01 0.060* 0.072*
  1. Abbreviation: CI, confidence interval
  2. *Tendency