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Table 1 Analysis variables weighted to the district and stratified by the outcome of residing in a hotspot versus residing in a district that was not a statistically significant hotspot identified using the Getis-Ord Gi*(d) statistic (n = 152), Amhara, Ethiopia, 2011–2016

From: Associations between Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) and trachoma clustering at aggregate spatial scales, Amhara, Ethiopia

VariableAll districts
Mean ± SD
Non-hotspot districts
Mean ± SD
Hotspot districts
Mean ± SD
Univariate OR
(95% CI)
Individual
 Trachomatous inflammation-follicular (%)25.08 ± 16.1923.08 ± 14.5348.54 ± 16.791.13 (1.07–1.20)
 Children with clean faces (%)80.58 ± 11.1381.63 ± 10.3168.30 ± 13.390.91 (0.86–0.96)
Household
 Access to a latrine52.22 ± 19.9553.04 ± 20.0842.60 ± 16.240.97 (0.95–1.00)
 Access to a water source within 30 minutes (%)61.58 ± 20.7363.48 ± 19.5239.34 ± 22.430.95 (0.92–0.98)
 Access to an improved water source (%)55.07 ± 23.3556.70 ± 22.5536.10 ± 25.180.96 (0.94–0.99)
 Crowding (> 6 persons living in the home) (%)38.22 ± 9.5437.88 ± 9.4942.19 ± 9.701.05 (0.99–1.12)
 Mean number of household items owned1.48 ± 0.761.56 ± 0.740.52 ± 0.320.01 (0.00–0.11)
 Any reported formal education (%)41.03 ± 16.9940.73 ± 16.4944.51 ± 22.691.01 (0.98–1.05)
Village
 Health facility (%)22.53 ± 17.1924.32 ± 16.2415.70 ± 23.370.97 (0.92–1.01)
 Paved road39.64 ± 24.1940.78 ± 24.1820.26 ± 14.990.94 (0.89–0.99)
District
 Previous rounds of MDA6.59 ± 1.646.63 ± 1.686.25 ± 1.220.86 (0.59–1.26)
Climate variables
 Average annual precipitation (mm)1135.00 ± 278.371135.00 ± 278.37809.50 ± 94.270.98 (0.97–0.99)
 Average annual temperature (°C)18.41 ± 3.0518.41 ± 3.0519.78 ± 2.251.16 (0.97–1.38)
 Altitude (m)2057.91 ± 477.362057.91 ± 477.361951.42 ± 313.981.00 (1.00–1.00)