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Table 1 Prevalence and associations of G. duodenalis presence, determined with qPCR, IDEXX SNAP® Giardia and DFA, for gastrointestinal parasites, dog population, age groups, sex, neuter status and fecal consistency

From: Host factors associated with Giardia duodenalis infection in dogs across multiple diagnostic tests

 qPCR%
(95% CI)
OR
(95% CI)
SNAP%
(95% CI)
OR
(95% CI)
DFA%
(95% CI)
OR
(95% CI)
Giardia-positive
(95% CI)
OR
(95% CI)
Parasites
 Any helminth22.5 (9.2–45.4)1.32 (0.52–3.39)
P = 0.560
22.1 (10.1–41.5)2.29 (1.08–4.83)
P = 0.030
20.1 (9.4–38.0)2.15 (1.10–4.22)
P = 0.026
22.0 (9.5–43.1)1.91 (0.78–4.71)
P = 0.158
 Toxocara sp.6.4 (3.9–10.5)2.08 (0.75–5.81)
P = 0.159
5.6 (3.0–10.3)1.89 (0.86–4.12)
P = 0.111
6.7 (4.0–11.0)2.80 (1.34–5.86)
P = 0.006
6.8 (4.2–10.8)2.67 (0.95–7.48
P = 0.061
 Toxascaris leonina7.0 (1.7–24.4)0.76 (0.74–7.83)
P = 0.820
6.7 (2.1–19.8)5.77 (2.21–15.02)
P = 0.0001
5.4 (1.7–15.7)2.01 (0.35–11.39)
P = 0.430
6.3 (1.5–22.7)0.67 (0.62–7.31)
P = 0.746
Trichuris sp.a16.6 (4.9–43.2)8.70 (3.63–20.86)
P = 0.0001
14.9 (4.6–39.0)2.56 (1.40–4.70)
P = 0.002
12.6 (3.5–36.1)2.48 (1.03–5.9)
P = 0.043
15.6 (4.8–40.2)8.96 (4.04–19.86)
P = 0.0001
 Strongyle type eggs16.6 (4.7–44.6)0.84 (0.09–7.91)
P = 0.876
14.9 (4.6–39.0)3.38 (0.56–20.33)
P = 0.184
12.6 (3.7–34.6)1.38 (0.28–6.67)
P = 0.690
15.1 (4.2–41.8)0.66 (0.69–6.32)
P = 0.720
 Taenia/Echinococcus sp.0.5 (0.09–3.2)nc0nc0nc0.5 (0.07–2.9)nc
 Any protozoa11.8 (4.4–28.0)1.61 (0.77–3.35)
P = 0.206
10.3 (4.8–20.9)1.29 (0.51–3.24)
P = 0.586
9.7 (5.4–16.6)1.61 (0.77–3.35)
P = 0.206
10.8 (4.0–26.0)1.09 (0.42–2.85)
P = 0.865
 Coccidia/Cysto-isospora sp.4.3 (2.0–8.8)1.60 (0.49–5.23)
P = 0.434
5.7 (3.1–10.3)1.30 (0.47–3.57)
P = 0.614
6.7 (4.0–11.1)1.71 (0.77–3.80)
P = 0.190
3.9 (1.9–8.0)1.41 (0.45–4.39)
P = 0.558
 Eimeria sp.8.6 (2.2–28.4)1.28 (0.26–6.26)
P = 0.763
5.6 (2.0–15.0)2.38 (0.54–10.52)
P = 0.255
4.6 (1.8–11.1)3.48 (1.25–9.66)
P = 0.017
7.8 (2.0–26.5)1.11 (0.24–5.16)
P = 0.898
 Any parasite27.3 (13.4–47.6)1.32 (0.64–2.73)
P = 0.446
27.7 (15.3–44.8)1.92 (1.01–3.68)
P = 0.048
26.4 (15.1–42.0)1.95 (1.17–3.24)
P = 0.011
26.3 (13.4–45.3)1.58 (0.79–3.16)
P = 0.198
 Any parasite excl. Eimeria26.2 (12.4–47.2)1.38 (0.64–2.97)
P = 0.411
26.7 (14.2–44.4)1.93 (0.99–3.75)
P = 0.054
25.9 (14.7–41.7)1.96 (1.17–3.30)
P = 0.011
25.4 (12.4–44.9)1.68 (0.81–3.50)
P = 0.167
Dog population
 Household17.1 (12.9–22.3)Ref5.3 (3.5–7.9)Ref11.6 (9.1–14.7)Ref21.5 (16.8–27.0)Ref
 Group housedb45.6 (30.6–61.4)3.77 (1.93–7.35)
P = 0.0001
25.1 (18.4–33.2)5.52 (3.05–9.96)
P = 0.0001
25.1 (18.1–33.6)2.32 (1.43–3.78)
P = 0.001
48.0 (34.0–62.3)3.12 (1.70–5.70)
P = 0.0001
  Shelter35.0 (24.1–47.8)1.95 (1.07–3.55)
P = 0.030
21.6 (15.1–29.9)3.22 (1.72–6.00)
P = 0.0001
20.9 (15.4–27.6)2.00 (1.10–3.65)
P = 0.024
38.0 (28.0–49.1)1.63 (0.95–2.80)
P = 0.074
  Huntingb88.2 (83.2–91.9)32.60 (17.23–61.59)
P = 0.0001
40.0 (31.1–49.7)9.87 (4.88–19.98)
P = 0.0001
43.1 (26.6–61.2)4.74 (1.93–11.64)
P = 0.001
88.2 (83.2–92.0)23.94 (12.67–45.22)
P = 0.0001
 Clinical32.0 (25.8–38.8)1.14 (0.58–2.25)
P = 0.709
22.8 (18.9–27.3)2.30 (1.22–4.33)
P = 0.010
23.4 (19.4–27.8)0.80 (0.45–1.30)
P = 0.322
33.0 (26.8–39.9)0.88 (0.46–1.68)
P = 0.703
Age group
 ≤ 6 months56.0 (41.9–69.2)Ref46.2 (36.7–55.9)Ref49.0 (39.7–58.5)Ref56.0 (41.9–69.2)Ref
 7–12 months54.3 (37.5–70.2)1.27 (0.49–3.33)
P = 0.624
32.9 (22.3–45.5)0.55 (0.27–1.13)
P = 0.102
35.2 (24.9–47.1)0.52 (0.26–1.04)
P = 0.065
57.1 (40.2–72.6)1.36 (0.53–3.56)
P = 0.526
 1 year30.2 (18.0–46.1)0.30 (0.11–0.81)
P = 0.018
14.3 (7.1–26.8)0.15 (0.06–0.37)
P = 0.0001
17.2 (10.7–26.6)0.19 (0.08–0.43)
P = 0.0001
32.6 (20.0–48.4)0.33 (0.53–0.88)
P = 0.028
 2–7 years23.0 (17.9–29.0)0.26 (0.11–0.63)
P = 0.003
12.4 (9.4–16.2)0.25 (0.13–0.49)
P = 0.0001
14.1 (11.3–17.6)0.17 (0.92–0.32)
P = 0.0001
25.3 (20.1–31.4)0.27 (0.12–0.64)
P = 0.003
 > 7 years16.4 (11.3–23.2)0.22 (0.09–0.57)
P = 0.002
8.3 (5.2–13.0)0.17 (0.08–0.38)
P = 0.0001
10.1 (7.2–14.0)0.13 (0.06–0.25)
P = 0.0001
21.2 (15.5–28.4)0.29 (0.12–0.72)
P = 0.008
Sex
 Female25.3 (20.3–31.0)Ref12.6 (9.9–16.0)Ref15.0 (12.2–18.3)Ref27.8 (22.6–33.5)Ref
 Male23.3 (18.5–28.9)0.77 (0.50–1.18)
P = 0.229
16.3 (13.1–20.0)1.24 (0.85–1.81)
P = 0.269
17.7 (14.4–21.4)1.17 (0.83–1.64)
P = 0.382
27.1 (22.0–32.8)0.87 (0.57–1.31)
P = 0.501
Neuter status
 Female intact37.0 (29.8–44.9)3.28 (1.60–6.72)
P = 0.001
18.6 (14.3–23.9)1.85 (0.89–3.88)
P = 0.101
19.2 (15.1–24.2)1.10 (0.64–1.88)
P = 0.251
38.3 (30.9–46.3)2.58 (1.32–5.02)
P = 0.005
 Female neutered11.0 (6.6–17.8)Ref5.3 (3.0–9.3)Ref10.2 (7.0–14.6)Ref15.0 (9.7–22.4)Ref
 Male intact25.4 (19.6–32.1)1.72 (0.86–3.43)
P = 0.124
19.7 (15.7–24.4)2.20 (1.07–4.54)
P = 0.033
20.9 (17.0–25.4)1.37 (0.80–2.34)
P = 0.672
30.8 (24.9–37.5)1.77 (0.94–3.34)
P = 0.079
 Male neutered18.4 (11.6–27.8)1.69 (0.74–3.84)
P = 0.210
7.9 (4.5–13.4)1.17 (0.48–2.83)
P = 0.732
9.6 (5.7–16.0)0.86 (0.42–1.74)
P = 0.251
18.4 (11.6–27.8)1.21 (0.57–2.59)
P = 0.620
Fecal consistency
 Loose40.8 (27.4–55.8)1.31 (0.77–2.23)
P = 0.326
26.5 (21.8–31.8)1.42 (0.90–2.23)
P = 0.269
27.4 (22.0–33.6)1.49 (0.94–2.39)
P = 0.093
43.7 (30.5–57.8)1.41 (0.84–2.34)
P = 0.192
 Non-loose25.9 (21.1–31.4)Ref14.3 (11.2–18.2)Ref16.3 (13.6–19.4)Ref28.9 (24.1–34.1)Ref
Total29.3 (23.7–35.5) 17.2 (14.2–20.6) 18.8 (16.0–22.0) 32.0 (26.7–38.0) 
  1. aOR adjusted for fecal consistency and clustering
  2. bOR adjusted for fecal consistency, clustering and dog population
  3. Abbreviations: OR, odds ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; P, P-value; SNAP, IDEXX SNAP® Giardia, Ref, reference group; nc, not calculable
  4. Notes: OR adjusted for dog population, age, sex, neuter status, fecal consistency score and clustering. Giardia positive: positive with at least one of the three tests
  5. G. duodenalis prevalence in %. OR in bold: significant association (P < 0.05)