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Table 1 List of insecticide resistance data on Culex quinquefasciatus field-collected in Brazil

From: Insecticide resistance in Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1823 in Brazil: a review

Macro RegionStateRegionYearInsecticideBioassayDiagnostic-doseBiochemical and molecular assays
Dose–response
RR50 (LC50 or LT50) or RR95 (LC95)Dose (%mortality)StatusdMethodDetected mechanismReference
NorthAmazonasManaus1978Chlorpyriphos1.3 (0.0008)SCurtis & Pasteur [48]
North-EastPernambucoRecife1995SequencingG119S ace-1RWeill et al. [64]
Coquea1991–1993Lysinibacillus sphaericus9.7 (0.0367)Low resistanceBinding experimentsSlight decrease in the receptor concentrationSilva-Filha et al. [86]
1991–1993Bacillus thuringiensis svar. israelensis2.0 (0.01)SSilva-Filha et al. [86]
1996Lysinibacillus sphaericus1.3–7.3 (0.0013–0.0313)Low resistanceSilva-Filha & Regis [87]
1996Bacillus thuringiensis svar. israelensis1.0 (0.009)SSilva-Filha & Regis [87]
Água Friaa2005–2010Lysinibacillus sphaericus2.7–8.6 (0.008–0.024)Low resistanceAS-PCRcqm1REC (0.033–0.055)e; cqm1REC-D25 (0.002)eSilva-Filha et al.; Chalegre et al. [88, 89, 91]
2009–2010Temephos1 (0.006)SAmorim et al. [51]
Azeitonaa1999Lysinibacillus sphaericusAS-PCRcqm1REC (0.002)e; cqm1REC-D16 (0.006)eChalegre et al. [89]
Roda de Fogoa1999Lysinibacillus sphaericusAS-PCRcqm1REC (0.017)eChalegre et al. [89]
Fazenda Nova2007Lysinibacillus sphaericus3.7 (0.011)SAS-PCRcqm1REC (0.0029)eChalegre et al. [88]
Peixinhosa2007Lysinibacillus sphaericus4 (0.012)SAS-PCRcqm1REC (0.0061)eChalegre et al. [88]
2009–2010Temephos1 (0.006)SAmorim et al. [51]
Jaboatão dos Guararapes2010Lysinibacillus sphaericus4.3 (0.017)SAS-PCRcqm1REC (0.001)e; cqm1REC-D16 (0.003)eChalegre et al. [89]
2010Lysinibacillus sphaericusMultiplex PCRcqm1REC (0.003)e; cqm1REC-2 (0.002)eMenezes et al. [85]
2009–2010Temephos0.57 (0.002)SAmorim et al. [51]
Glória do Goitá Ipojuca2009–2010Temephos1.5 (0.009)SAmorim et al. [51]
2009–2010Temephos0.6 (0.0019)SAmorim et al. [51]
2010Lysinibacillus sphaericus3.3 (0.013)SAS-PCRcqm1REC (0.003)eChalegre et al. [89]
Santa Cruz do Capibaribe2009–2010Temephos5.8 (0.036)Moderate resistanceEnzymatic assays and AS-PCRG119S ace-1R (0.11)e; α-esterase (> 30%); β-esterase (> 17%)Amorim et al. [51]
CearáFortaleza1993Enzymatic assaysEsterase C2Yebákima et al. [60]
Center-WestMato GrossoCuiabá2000Temephos0.012–0,06 ppm (95–100%)TolerantCampos & Andrade [50]
Mato Grosso do SulCampo Grande1998Temephos0.04 ppm (88.09); 0.045 ppm (93.71%)RMetabolic resistance (suggested)Campos & Andrade [50]
2012AS-PCRL1014F kdr mutation (0.01)eSteinhagem et al. [77]
Naviraí2013Temephos0.004 ppm (18–20%)RScudeler et al. [52]
South-EastRio de JaneiroRio de Janeiro1978Chlorpyriphos2.2 (0.001)Low resistanceCurtis & Pasteur [48]
1994Malathion2.2 (0.15)SSinergists testsMixed function oxidase and increased esterasesGonzáles et al. [49]
Chlorpyriphos78.9 (0.0005)RMixed function oxidase and increased esterases
Pirimiphos-methil4.4 (0.026)S
Propoxur5.1 (0.51)SSinergists testsMixed function oxidase and increased esterases
Cypermethrin3.4 (0.0008)S
Deltamethrin3.2 (0.0003)S
Lambda-cyhalothrin6.0 (0.0003)SSinergists testsMixed function oxidase and increased esterases
DDT11.8 (0.025)R
1995Malathion43.81 (0.609)REnzymatic assaysElevated esterase and altered AChECoto et al. [24]
2012AS-PCRL1014F kdr mutation (0.04)eSteinhagem et al. [77]
Niterói2012L1014F kdr mutation (0.07)e
São PauloPinheiro River2005Lysinibacillus sphaericus0.6–2.85 (0.009–0.0454)SAndrade et al. [30]
2006Lysinibacillus sphaericus5 (0.015)SSilva-Filha et al. [91]
1995Fenitrothion, malathion and propoxur1% (47.5%); 5% (58.8%); 0.1% (59.4%)RBracco et al. [53]
1995DDT and permetrin4%; 0.25% (100%)S
1995–1996Fenitrothion, malathion and propoxur11.20 (136.3)c; 3.33 (32.9)c; 3.01 (200)cREnzymatic assaysG119S ace-1R (0.12–0,17)e; α-esterase (> 11.2%)Bracco et al. [54]
Campinas1999–2001Temephos6.36 (0.0076)RMetabolic resistance (suggested)Campos & Andrade [50]
1999–2001Cypermethrin0.0096 ppm (11.17%)RMetabolic resistance (suggested)
1999–2001Cyfluthrin0.002–0.03 ppm (0.42–47.5%)RMetabolic resistance (suggested)
Minas GeraisBelo Horizonte2012AS-PCRL1014F kdr mutation (0.04)eSteinhagem et al. [77]
SouthRio Grande do SulPorto Alegre1989–1991Lysinibacillus sphaericus and Bacillus thuringiensis svar. israelensis1250 mg/m2 (100%)SRuas-Neto et al. [97]
1989–1991Tetramethrine/PBO5 mg/m2 (97.87%)S
Feliz1989–1991Lysinibacillus sphaericus and Bacillus thuringiensis svar. israelensis1250 mg/m2 (100%)S
1989–1991Temephos and fenthion0.86b (7.4×103) and 1.39b (0.24)S
  1. Note: LC50 and LC95 expressed in ppm i.a
  2. aRecife Metropolitan Area
  3. bLethal concentrations plus standard errors calculated after log transformations and anti-log values between brackets
  4. cLethal time: LT50
  5. dIn accordance to the original reference
  6. eAllelic frequence
  7. Abbreviation: AS-PCR, allelic specific polymerase chain reaction