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Table 1 Seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies in South American camelids

From: Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum infections in South American camelids in Switzerland and assessment of serological tests for diagnosis

Country (Region) SAC species Test (commercial provider) Cut-off No. positive/No. examined % Positive Reference
Peru (Lampa, Puno) Alpaca IHA (Toxotest, Wiener Lab.) 1:16 89/200 44.5 [48]
Llama   38/136 27.9
Peru (Canchis, Cusco) Alpaca IFAT 1:50 97/272 35.7 [49]
Peru (Peruvian Andes, Central and South Sierra) Llama IFAT
Conjugate: anti-llama IgG-FITC (VMRD) + confirmation of positive results by Western blot
1:50 19/43 44.2 [69]
Vicuna    11/200 5.5
Peru (Puno, South-Eastern Peru) Alpaca Immunoblot T. gondii   20/675 3.0 [30]
Llama   7/81 8.6
Vicuna   3/114 2.6
Peru (Central Sierra) Alpaca IHA (Toxotest, Wiener Lab.). 1:16 42/200 21.0 [50]
Peru (Central Sierra) Alpaca IFAT
Conjugate: anti-llama IgG-FITC (VMRD)
1:200 22/258 8.5 [70]
Peru (Melgar, Puno) Llama IFAT 1:200 16/107 14.9 [71]
Peru (Central and South Peruvian Andes) Alpaca IFAT
Conjugate: anti-llama IgG FITC (VMRD)
1:200 706/2874 24.6 [57]
Llama   460/1845 24.9
Argentina (Jujuy) Llama IFAT
Conjugate: anti bovine IgG FITC (Sigma-Aldrich)
1:50 44/308 14.3 [37]
Chile Alpaca IHA (in-house) 1:16 32/447 7.2 [38]
Chile Alpaca MAT 1:25 15/127 11.8 [39]
Llama   49/113 43.3
USA (Northwest: Oregon, Washington State and Idaho) Llama MAT 1:25 95/283 33.5 [41]
USA Virginia Alpaca MAT 1:25 6/16 37.5 [40]
Germany (Hesse) Alpaca Immunoblot T. gondii   4/12 33.3 [30]
Llama   10/20 50.0
Czech Republic Alpaca ELISA (ID Screen Toxoplasmosis indirect multispecies ID.vet) S/P (%) ≥ 50%a 1/1 100 [42]
Llama    7/8 88.0
Alpaca IFAT
Conjugate: anti-llama IgG FITC (VMRD)
1:50 0/1 0
Llama    4/8 50.0
  1. aS/P (%) calculated according to the formula: S/P %= (OD sample/OD positive control) × 100, OD optical density
  2. Abbreviations: cELISA, competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; IFAT, indirect fluorescent antibody test; FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugate; IHA, indirect hemagglutination; MAT, modified agglutination test