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Table 2 Summary of findings in 12 deceased donkeys with besnoitiosis identified over a period of 3 years (from 2016 to 2019)

From: First record of besnoitiosis caused by Besnoitia bennetti in donkeys from the UK

IDAge and sexYearClinical historyPathological findings
1a29-year-old female2016Chronic stiffness, osteoarthritis and alopeciaHyperkeratosis, ulceration and lymphoplasmacytic dermatitis, with one Besnoitia cyst in the dermis
2a28-year-old gelding2016Chronic and progressive alopecia, crusts and ulcersMultiple eosinophilic granulomas and Besnoitia cysts in the dermis with no associated inflammation
3a,c6-year-old gelding2016Dental disease, penile sheath phimosis and skin issuesBesnoitia cysts were found within the dermis with no surrounding inflammation
4a,c5-year-old gelding2017Repeated sarcoids plus an inoperable sarcoid on penile sheathModerate enlargement of inguinal lymph nodes with one Besnoitia cyst in the subcapsular space of the inguinal lymph node
5c28-year-old gelding2017Intractable pain, corneal ulceration, keratitis and conjunctivitisChronic, mild to moderate, conjunctivitis with intralesional Besnoitia cysts in both conjunctivae
623-year-old gelding2017Severe dental disease and chronic osteoarthritisChronic, moderate, diffuse lymphoplasmacytic conjunctivitis with one Besnoitia cyst in the conjunctiva and eyelid
7b,c8-year-old gelding2018Inoperable sarcoid mass in the left-hand side of the upper lipBesnoitia cysts were identified adjacent to sarcoid without associated inflammation
832-year-old gelding2018Lameness due to hoof abscess, with stiffness and arthritisBesnoitia cysts in iris, extraocular muscles, conjunctiva, sclera, third eyelid and larynx
9b13-year-old gelding2019Recurrent sarcoids and neurological signsBesnoitia cysts were identified adjacent to a sarcoid without associated inflammation
10a21-year-old female2019Chronic and progressive lameness and osteitisBesnoitia cysts surrounded by lymphoplasmacytic inflammation in laminar corium of the left fore limb
11a24-year-old female2019Chronic laminitis, hoof abscess and third phalanx osteitisBesnoitia cyst surrounded by inflammation in the third phalanx and stratum lamellatum of the right fore limb
1228-year-old gelding2019Recurrent, persistent ulcerative dermatitisChronic, multifocal, lymphoplasmacytic inflammation with intralesional Besnoitia cysts in the larynx, muzzle, sclera of both eyes and conjunctiva
  1. aCases with dermatological involvement (i.e. without grossly detectable eye or upper respiratory lesions) were diagnosed by histopathology
  2. bDonkeys were diagnosed with sarcoid ante-mortem, but later on died due to non-parasitic reasons and Besnoitia cysts were detected during histopathology examination
  3. cDiagnosis was confirmed in 4 archived serum samples based on a positive IFAT cut-off titre of 1:400 and recognition of > 3 of 10 bands in the immunoblots