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Table 1 Prevalence of pathogens in field-collected ticks in Latvia, 2017–2019 (n = 4593)

From: Large-scale countrywide screening for tick-borne pathogens in field-collected ticks in Latvia during 2017–2019

Pathogen speciesa Tick species P-valueb
Ixodes ricinus (95% CI) Ixodes persulcatus (95% CI) Dermacentor reticulatus (95% CI) All ticks
Male Female Nymph Total Male Female Nymph Total Male Female Nymph Total
TBEV 0.88 0.6 0.43 0.65 (0.44–0.96) 1.3 0 0 0.63 (0.01–3.86) 1.74 0.24 0 0.67 (0.2–1.78) 0.65 1.000
Babesia total* 3.08 3.25 1.04 2.53 (2.07–3.07) 0 1.35 0 0.63 (0.01–3.86) 0 0.48 0 0.34 (0.01–1.30) 2.18 0.0002*
Ba. canis 1.39 0.76 0.52 0.91 (0.65–1.27) 0 0 0 0 (0–2.86) 0 0.48 0 0.34 (0.01–1.30) 0.81 0.2727
Ba. microti 0.29 1.28 0 0.55 (0.35–0.84) 0 1.35 0 0.63 (0.01–3.86) 0 0 0 (0–0.77) 0.48 0.1081
Ba. venatorum* 1.39 1.21 0.52 1.07 (0.78–1.45) 0 0 0 (0–2.86) 0 0 0 0 (0–0.77) 0.89 0.0075*
Ba. capreoli 0 0.08 0 0.03 (0.01–0.16) 0 0 0 0 (0–2.86) 0 0 0 0 (0–0.77) 0.02 1.000
A. phagocytophilum 1.39 1.44 0.69 1.20 (0.90–1.60) 1.3 0 0 0.63 (0.01–3.86) 0.58 0.48 0.50 (0.10–1.54) 1.09 0.3050
Rickettsia total* 20.25 21.22 16.48 19.45 (18.23–20.74) 7.79 5.41 28.57 7.59 (4.28–12.92) 26.16 21.48 22.69 (19.50–26.23) 19.46 < 0.0001*
R. helvetica* 18.86 18.73 15.35 17.76 (16.58–19.00) 6.49 5.41 14.29 6.33 (3.34–11.39) 8.14 4.06 0 5.21 (3.67–7.32) 15.74 < 0.0001*
R. monacensis 0.07 0.15 0.17 0.13 (0.05–0.31) 0  0 0 (0–2.86) 0  0 0 (0–0.77) 0.11 1.000
R. raoultii* 1.98 2.79 1.47 2.11 (1.70–2.62) 1.3 0 14.29 1.27 (0.05–4.79) 18.6 17.66 17.82 (14.94–21.10) 4.11 < 0.0001*
Bo. miyamotoi* 1.39 1.51 0.43 1.15 (0.85–1.54) 0 2.70 0 1.27 (0.05–4.79) 0 0 0 0 (0–0.77) 1.0 0.0062*
Bo. burgdorferi (s.l.)* 20.47 21.15 4.77 15.99 (14.86–17.18) 20.78 27.03 14.29 23.42 (17.46–30.63) 0 1.43 1.01 (0.41–2.24) 14.3 < 0.0001*
Bo. afzelii* 11.96 12.08 3.12 9.35 (8.47–10.31) 12.99 17.57 14.29 15.19 (10.37–21.67) 0 1.19 0 0.84 (0.3–2.01) 8.45 < 0.0001*
Bo. burgdorferi (s.s.) 0.66 0.83 0.26 0.60 (0.39–0.90) 0 0 0 0 (0–2.86) 0 0 0 (0–0.77) 0.5 0.1367
Bo. garinii* 2.86 3.55 1.13 2.58 (2.12–3.13) 7.79 10.81 0 8.86 (5.25–14.43) 0 0.24 0 0.17 (0–0.01) 2.48 < 0.0001*
Bo. lusitaniae* 3.89 3.02 0.26 2.50 (2.05–3.05) 0 0 0 0 (0–2.86) 0 0 0 (0–0.77) 2.09 < 0.0001*
Bo. valaisiana* 1.39 2.04 0.09 1.22 (0.92–1.63) 0 0 0 0 (0–2.86) 0 0 0 0 (0–0.77) 1.02 0.00285*
Any pathogen-positive* 40.13 40.63 22.2 34.92 (33.43–36.44) 29.87 33.78 28.57 31.65 (24.89–39.27) 27.33 23.15 0 24.2 (20.93–27.81) 33.42 < 0.0001*
Total no. of ticks 1363 1324 1153 3840 77 74 7 158 172 419 4 595 4593  
  1. aIncluding co-infections
  2. bP-value was calculated for the total numbers
  3. *Statistically significant difference (P ≤ 0.05)
  4. Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; TBEV, tick-borne encephalitis virus