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Table 1 Contamination of vegetables and fruits by Cryptosporidium spp.

From: Detection of human intestinal protozoan parasites in vegetables and fruits: a review

Location Detection method Vegetable or fruit item No. of samples tested No. of positive samples (%) Cryptosporidium species (n) References
Brazil PCR Vegetables 21 2 (9.5) Cryptosporidium spp. (1); C. parvum (1) [45]
China PCR Lettuce 200 0   [36]
Coriander 152 0  
Celery 70 0  
Baby bok choy 59 0  
Chinese cabbage 47 0  
Leaf lettuce 44 0  
Water spinach 28 0  
Crown daisy 27 0  
Fennel plant 26 0  
Endive 25 0  
Spinach 20 0  
Schizonepeta 20 0  
Cabbage 18 0  
Leaf mustard 11 0  
Chinese chive 132 1 (0.8) C. parvum (1)
Chive 128 0  
Cucumber 41 0  
Watermelon 15 0  
Potato 3 0  
Bean (kidney/French bean) 28 0  
Green chili 5 0  
Costa Rica Direct smear, followed by light microscopy Cilantro leaves 80 4 (5.0) Cryptosporidium spp. (4) [79]
Cilantro roots 80 7 (8.7) Cryptosporidium spp. (7)
Lettuce 80 2 (2.5) Cryptosporidium spp. (2)
Radish, tomato, cucumbers, carrots 80 1 (1.2) Cryptosporidium spp. (1)
Costa Rica Zielh-Nielsen stain, Weber stain Lettuce 50 7 (14.0) Cryptosporidium spp. (7) [71]
Parsley 50 1 (2.0) Cryptosporidium spp. (1)
Cilantro 50 1 (2.0) Cryptosporidium spp. (1)
Strawberries 50 0  
Blackberries 50 3 (6.0) Cryptosporidium spp. (3)
Egypt Wet mount, Weber modified trichrome, modified Ziehl-Neelsen stains Fresh fruit juices   61.3 Cryptosporidium spp. [80]
Ethiopia Modifed Zeihl-Neelsen stain Fruits and vegetables 360 46 (12.8) Cryptosporidium spp. (46) [19]
Ethiopia Modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain Fruits and vegetables 360 17 (4.7) Cryptosporidium spp. (17) [32]
Ethiopia Modified Zeihl-Neelsen stain Tomato 100 9 (9.0) Cryptosporidium spp. (9) [14]
Cabbage 96 0  
Green pepper 66 2 (3.0) Cryptosporidium spp. (2)
Carrot 62 7 (11.3) Cryptosporidium spp. (7)
Salad 23 2 (8.7) Cryptosporidium spp. (2)
Ghana Ziehl-Neelsen stain Cabbage 90 18 (20.0) Cryptosporidium parvum (18) [12]
Green pepper 55 12 (21.8) Cryptosporidium parvum (12)
Carrot 47 6 (12.8) Cryptosporidium parvum (6)
Onion 70 9 (12.9) Cryptosporidium parvum (9)
Tomato 31 4 (12.9) Cryptosporidium parvum (4)
Lettuce 102 18 (17.6) Cryptosporidium parvum (18)
Ghana Sediment smears and fluorescence stain Cabbage 72 12 (16.7) Cryptosporidium spp. (12) [67]
Lettuce 72 15 (20.8) Cryptosporidium spp. (15)
Carrot 72 4 (5.6) Cryptosporidium spp. (4)
Spring onion 72 8 (11.1) Cryptosporidium spp. (8)
Tomatoes 72 1 (1.4) Cryptosporidium spp. (1)
Ghana Direct wet mount, Trichrome, modified Zielh-Nielsen stain Tiger nuts 40 12 (30.0) Cryptosporidium parvum (12) [81]
India DAPI-stain followed by fluorescence microscopy, and PCR Cabbage 47 3 (6.4) Cryptosporidium parvum (3) [13]
Chili 42 2 (4.8) Cryptosporidium spp. (2)
Coriander 28 2 (7.1) Cryptosporidium spp. (2)
Cucumber 52 3 (5.8) Cryptosporidium parvum (3)
Radish 14 1 (7.1) Cryptosporidium spp. (1)
Tomatoes 56 6 (10.7) Cryptosporidium spp. (6)
Iran Modified Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast stain Mint 82 7 (8.5) Cryptosporidium spp. (7) [26]
Leek 90 3 (3.3) Cryptosporidium spp. (3)
Cress 90 8 (8.9) Cryptosporidium spp. (8)
Green onion 54 8 (14.8) Cryptosporidium spp. (8)
Coriander 90 6 (6.7) Cryptosporidium spp. (6)
Basil 90 1 (1.1) Cryptosporidium spp. (1)
Iran Modified Ziehl-Neelsen satin Vegetables 34 3 (8.8) Cryptosporidium spp. (3) [72]
Italy modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain and PCR Ready-to-eat packaged salads 648 6 (0.9) Cryptosporidium parvum/C. ubiquitum (6) [23]
Korea qPCR Carrots 3 1 (33.3) Cryptosporidium parvum (1) [22]
Cabbages 3 1 (33.3) Cryptosporidium parvum (1)
Blue berries 3 1 (33.3) Cryptosporidium parvum (1)
Korea Multiplex qPCR Perilla leaves 72 5 (6.9) Cryptosporidium spp. (5) [24]
Winter-grown cabbage 70 4 (5.7) Cryptosporidium spp. (4)
Chives 73 13 (17.8) Cryptosporidium spp. (13)
Sprouts 72 1 (1.4) Cryptosporidium spp. (1)
Blueberries 44 3 (6.8) Cryptosporidium spp. (3)
Cherry tomatoes 73 5 (6.8) Cryptosporidium spp. (5)
Norway Concentrated by IMS, and screening by light microscopy Alfalfa sprouts 16 0   [35]
Dill 7 0  
Lettuce 125 5 (4.0) Cryptosporidium spp. (5)
Mung bean sprouts 149 14 (9.4) Cryptosporidium spp. (14)
Mushrooms 55 0  
Parsley 7 0  
Precut salad mix 38 0  
Radish sprouts 6 0  
Raspberries 10 0  
Strawberries 62 0  
Norway Concentrated by IMS, and screening by light microscopy Alfalfa 16 0   [82]
Mung bean 149 14 (9.4) Cryptosporidium spp. (14)
Radish 6 0  
Peru Direct microscopic observation, acid-fast staining, and immunofluorescent assays Vegetables   14.5 Cryptosporidium parvum [83]
Poland Separated by IMS and identified by immunofluorescence and DIC microscopy, and PCR identified Fresh vegetables 128 6 (4.7) Cryptosporidium parvum or C. hominis (6) [25]
Fruits 35 0  
Spain Concentrated by IMS and stain oocysts for immunofluorescence assay Chinese cabbage 6 2 (33.3) Cryptosporidium spp. (2) [11]
Lollo rosso lettuce 4 3 (75.0) Cryptosporidium spp. (3)
Romaine lettuce 9 7 (77.8) Cryptosporidium spp. (7)
Total    6210 375 (6.0)