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Table 2 Contamination of vegetables and fruits with Giardia duodenalis

From: Detection of human intestinal protozoan parasites in vegetables and fruits: a review

Location Detection method Vegetable or fruit item No. of samples tested No. of positive samples (%) Giardia duodenalis assemblages identified (n) References
Bangladesh Iodine and normal saline wet mount Vegetables 200 2 (1.0)   [52]
Brazil PCR Lettuce and chicory 11 2 (18.2) Assemblage BIV (2) [39]
Brazil Immunofluorescence, PCR Arugula 4 2 (50.0) Assemblage AII (2) [28]
Chives 12 1 (8.3) Assemblage AII (1)
Crisp lettuce 32 4 (12.5) Assemblage AII (4)
Greens collard 24 1 (4.2) Assemblage AI (1)
Parsley 12 2 (16.7) Assemblage AII (2)
Watercress 12 4 (33.3) Assemblage AII (4)
Wild chicory 12 2 (16.7) Assemblage AII (2)
Brazil Semi-nested PCR Regular lettuce 60 8 (13.3) Assemblage AI (4); Assemblage B (1); Assemblage E (1); N/D (2) [44]
Crisp lettuce 100 5 (5.0) Assemblage AI (2); N/D (3)
Chicory 60 5 (8.3) Assemblage AI (3); N/D (2)
Rocket 20 1 (5.0) N/D (1)
Kale 20 0  
Brazil PCR Vegetables 21 10 (47.6) Assemblage E (2); N/D (8) [45]
Brazil Sediment being stained in Lugolʼs solution Lettuce 100 0   [15]
Coriander 100 1 (1.0)  
Costa Rica Direct smear, followed by light microscopy Cilantro leaves 80 4 (5.0)   [79]
Cilantro roots 80 2 (2.5)  
Egypt Lugol’s iodine stain Lettuce 101 16 (15.8)   [18]
Watercress 116 13 (11.2)  
Parsley 102 12 (11.8)  
Green onion 103 4 (3.9)  
Leek 108 2 (1.9)  
Ethiopia Lugol’s iodine stain Fruits and vegetables 360 27 (7.5)   [19]
Ethiopia Sediment smear under light microscope Fruits and vegetables 360 36 (10.0)   [32]
Ethiopia Sediment smear under light microscope Tomatoes 45 1 (2.2)   [43]
Lettuce 45 4 (8.8)  
Carrot 45 7 (15.6)  
Cabbage 45 8 (17.8)  
Green pepper 45 6 (13.3)  
Avocado 45 0  
Ethiopia Sediment smear and Lugol’s iodine stain Tomato 100 0   [14]
Cabbage 96 16 (16.7)  
Green pepper 66 4 (6.1)  
Carrot 62 4 (6.5)  
Salad 23 0  
Ghana Lugol’s iodine stain Cabbage 90 5 (5.6)   [12]
Green pepper 55 3 (5.5)  
Carrot 47 4 (8.5)  
Onion 70 3 (4.3)  
Tomato 31 2 (6.5)  
Lettuce 102 5 (4.9)  
India DAPI-stain followed by fluorescence microscopy, and PCR Cabbage 47 1 (2.1)   [13]
Carrot 25 1 (4.0)  
Chili 42 4 (9.5)  
Coriander 28 3 (10.7)  
Cucumber 52 1 (1.9) Assemblage D (1)
Tomatoes 56 2 (3.6) Assemblage A (2)
Turnip 3 1 (33.3)  
Iran Lugol’s iodine stain Vegetables 141 11 (7.8)   [84]
Iran Sediment smear under light microscopy Leek 30 3 (10.0)   [42]
Spring onion 22 0  
Basil 15 1 (6.7)  
Parsley 21 0  
Lettuce 23 0  
Cress 17 0  
Spearmint 18 0  
Tarragon 19 0  
Coriander 24 0  
Radish 29 0  
Italy Lugolʼs iodine satin and PCR Ready-to-eat packaged salad 648 4 (0.6) Assemblage A (4) [23]
Jordan Lugol’s iodine stain Lettuce 30 7 (23.3)   [20]
Tomato 33 2 (6.1)  
Parsley 42 0  
Cucumber 28 0  
Norway Concentrated by IMS, and screening by light microscopy Alfalfa sprouts 16 0   [35]
Dill 7 2 (28.6)  
Lettuce 125 2 (1.6)  
Mung bean sprouts 149 3 (2.0)  
Mushrooms 55 0  
Parsley 7 0  
Precut salad mix 38 0  
Radish sprouts 6 1 (16.7)  
Raspberries 10 0  
Strawberries 62 2 (3.2)  
Norway Concentrated by IMS, and screening by light microscopy Alfalfa 16 0   [82]
Mung bean 149 3 (2.0)  
Radish 6 1 (16.7)  
Saudi Arabia Lugol’s iodine stain Green onion 50 0   [17]
Watercress 50 0  
Lettuce 50 0  
Cucumber 50 0  
Cabbage 50 0  
Pea 50 0  
Tomato 50 0  
Carrot 50 4 (8.0)  
Spain Concentrated by IMS and stain cysts for immunofluorescence assay Chinese cabbage 6 2 (33.3)   [11]
Lollo rosso lettuce 4 3 (75.0)  
Romaine lettuce 9 5 (55.6)  
Sudan Lugol’s iodine stain Tomatoes 36 1 (2.8)   [29]
Cucumber 12 0  
Armenian cucumber 16 0  
Green pepper 25 1 (4.0)  
Cayenne pepper 7 0  
Radish 24 1 (4.2)  
Beet 19 0  
Watercress 23 2 (8.7)  
Lettuce 11 1 (9.1)  
Green onion 36 1 (2.8)  
Carrot 50 1 (2.0)  
Total    5739 276 (4.8)   
  1. Giardia duodenalis, G. intestinalis, G. lamblia