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Table 4 Contamination of vegetables and fruits with Entamoeba spp.

From: Detection of human intestinal protozoan parasites in vegetables and fruits: a review

Location Detection method Vegetable or fruit item Number of samples tested Number of positive samples (%) Entamoeba species identified (n) References
Bangladesh Wet mount Vegetables 200 17 (8.5) Entamoeba histolytica [52]
Brazil Direct smear, followed by light microscopy Lettuce 30 3 (10.0) Entamoeba coli (3) [85]
Brazil Lugol’s iodine stain Loose leaf lettucea 1 1 Entamoeba sp. [30]
Red lettucea 1 1 Entamoeba sp.
Curly lettucea 1 1 Entamoeba sp.
Iceberg lettucea 1 1 Entamoeba sp.
Parsleya 1 1 Entamoeba sp.
Chivea 1 1 Entamoeba sp.
Coriandera 1 1 Entamoeba sp.
Basila 1 1 Entamoeba sp.
Arugulaa 1 1 Entamoeba sp.
Chicorya 1 1 Entamoeba sp.
Kalea 1 1 Entamoeba sp.
Bean sproutsa 1 1 Entamoeba sp.
Brazil Sediment smear, followed by light microscopy Vegetables 100 32 (32.0) Entamoeba spp. (32) [86]
Brazil Sediment being stained in Lugolʼs solution Lettuce 100 9 (9.0) Entamoeba histolytica (9) [15]
Lettuce 100 4 (4.0) Entamoeba coli (4)
Coriander 100 11 (11.0) Entamoeba histolytica (11)
Coriander 100 4 (4.0) Entamoeba coli (4)
Cameroon Lugol’s iodine stain Green cabbage 30 5 (16.7) Entamoeba spp. (5) [66]
Red cabbage 30 3 (10.0) Entamoeba spp. (3)
Lettuce 30 9 (30.0) Entamoeba spp. (9)
Cucumber 30 5 (16.7) Entamoeba spp. (5)
Carrots 30 3 (10.0) Entamoeba spp. (3)
Green pepper 30 5 (16.7) Entamoeba spp. (5)
Costa Rica Direct smear, followed by light microscopy Cilantro leaves 80 5 (6.2) Entamoeba histolytica (5) [79]
Cilantro roots 80 2 (2.5) Entamoeba histolytica (2)
Lettuce 80 3 (3.8) Entamoeba histolytica (3)
Radish 80 2 (2.5) Entamoeba histolytica (2)
Egypt Lugol’s iodine stain Lettuce 101 14 (13.9) Entamoeba spp. (14) [18]
Watercress 116 9 (7.8) Entamoeba spp. (9)
Parsley 102 8 (7.8) Entamoeba spp. (8)
Green onion 103 2 (1.9) Entamoeba spp. (2)
Leek 108 3 (2.8) Entamoeba spp. (3)
Ethiopia Lugol’s iodine stain Fruits and vegetables 360 19 (5.3) Entamoeba histolytica/E.dispar (19) [19]
Ethiopia Sediment smear Fruits and vegetables 360 52 (14.4) E. histolytica/dispar (52) [32]
Ethiopia Lugol’s iodine stain Tomato 100 22 (22.0) E. histolytica (22) [14]
Cabbage 96 0  
Green pepper 66 0  
Carrot 62 7 (11.3) E. histolytica (7)
Salad 23 0  
Ethiopia Sediment smear under light microscope Tomatoes 45 1 (2.2) E. histolytica/E. dispar (1) [43]
Lettuce 45 4 (8.8) E. histolytica/E. dispar (4)
Carrot 45 6 (13.3) E. histolytica/E. dispar (6)
Cabbage 45 7 (15.6) E. histolytica/E. dispar (7)
Green pepper 45 5 (11.1) E. histolytica/E. dispar (5)
Avocado 45 5 (11.1) E. histolytica/E. dispar (5)
Ghana Lugol’s iodine stain Cabbage 90 5 (5.6) Entamoeba coli (5) [12]
Green pepper 55 4 (7.3) Entamoeba coli (4)
Onion 70 2 (2.9) Entamoeba coli (2)
Tomato 31 2 (6.5) Entamoeba coli (2)
Lettuce 102 4 (3.9) Entamoeba coli (4)
Ghana Lugol’s iodine stain Cabbage 90 11 (12.2) Entamoeba histolytica (11)
Carrot 47 4 (8.5) Entamoeba histolytica (4)
Onion 70 2 (2.9) Entamoeba histolytica (2)
Tomato 31 4 (12.9) Entamoeba histolytica (4)
Lettuce 102 6 (5.9) Entamoeba histolytica (6)
Iran Lugol’s iodine stain Vegetables 141 18 (12.8) Entamoeba coli (18) [84]
Iran Sediment smear under light microscopy Leek 30 0   [42]
Spring onion 22 2 (9.1) Entamoeba coli (2)
Basil 15 0  
Parsley 21 0  
Lettuce 23 0  
Cress 17 1 (5.9) Entamoeba coli (1)
Spearmint 18 0  
Tarragon 19 1 (5.3) Entamoeba coli (1)
Coriander 24 2 (8.3) Entamoeba coli (2)
Radish 29 0  
Iran Sediment smear under light microscopy Leek 30 2 (6.7) Entamoeba histolytica (2) [42]
Spring onion 22 0  
Basil 15 0  
Parsley 21 0  
Lettuce 23 0  
Cress 17 0  
Spearmint 18 1 (5.6) Entamoeba histolytica (1)
Tarragon 19 0  
Coriander 24 0  
Radish 29 0  
Iran Lugol’s iodine stain Vegetables 34 1 (2.9) Entamoeba coli (1) [72]
Jordan Lugol’s iodine stain Lettuce 30 3 (10.0) Entamoeba histolytica (3) [20]
Tomato 33 2 (6.1) Entamoeba histolytica (2)
Parsley 42 0  
Cucumber 28 0  
Saudi Arabia Lugol’s iodine stain Green onion 50 6 (12.0) Entamoeba spp. (6) [17]
Watercress 50 8 (16.0) Entamoeba spp. (8)
Lettuce 50 6 (12.0) Entamoeba spp. (6)
Cucumber 50 7 (14.0) Entamoeba spp. (7)
Cabbage 50 6 (12.0) Entamoeba spp. (6)
Pea 50 5 (10.0) Entamoeba spp. (5)
Tomato 50 0  
Carrot 50 6 (12.0) Entamoeba spp. (6)
Saudi Arabia Lugol’s iodine stain Green onion 50 3 (6.0) Entamoeba coli (3)
Watercress 50 4 (8.0) Entamoeba coli (4)
Lettuce 50 2 (4.0) Entamoeba coli (2)
Cucumber 50 2 (4.0) Entamoeba coli (2)
Cabbage 50 4 (8.0) Entamoeba coli (4)
Pea 50 3 (6.0) Entamoeba coli (3)
Tomato 50 2 (4.0) Entamoeba coli (2)
Carrot 50 3 (6.0) Entamoeba coli (3)
Sudan Lugol’s iodine stain Tomatoes 36 1 (2.8) Entamoeba coli (1) [29]
Cucumber 12 0  
Armenian cucumber 16 0  
Green pepper 25 0  
Cayenne pepper 7 0  
Radish 24 1 (4.2) Entamoeba coli (1)
Beet 19 1 (5.3) Entamoeba coli (1)
Watercress 23 1 (4.3) Entamoeba coli (1)
Lettuce 11 1 (9.1) Entamoeba coli (1)
Green onion 36 0  
Carrot 50 0  
Sudan Lugol’s iodine stain Tomatoes 36 1 (2.8) Entamoeba spp. (1) [29]
Cucumber 12 0  
Armenian cucumber 16 2 (12.5) Entamoeba spp. (2)
Green pepper 25 1 (4.0) Entamoeba spp. (1)
Cayenne pepper 7 0  
Radish 24 0  
Beet 19 1 (5.3) Entamoeba spp. (1)
Watercress 23 1 (4.3) Entamoeba spp. (1)
Lettuce 11 2 (18.2) Entamoeba spp. (2)
Green onion 36 4 (11.1) Entamoeba spp. (4)
Carrot 50 3 (6.0) Entamoeba spp. (3)
Total    5647 199 (3.5)   
  1. aSingle sample in a case report